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Anthropometric measurements of trisikad drivers and ergonomic measurements of trisikads as determinants of low back pain disability among trisikad drivers of selected barangays of Cebu City: A basis for occupational therapy intervention.


Gerardine P. Paculanang,
Gabriela G. Suarez,
Hanaru A. Tan,
Anke Christian Tiu

Related Institution

College of Rehabilitative Sciences – Department of Occupational Therapy - Cebu Doctors' University

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Occupational Therapy
Publication Date
January 2019


   This study aimed to determine the anthropometric measurements of trisikad drivers and ergonomic measurements of trisikads as determinants of low back pain disability among trisikad drivers of selected barangays of Cebu City in the year 2017-2018 and develop an occupational therapy intervention based on the results. This study used a descriptive-predictive correlational survey research design to gather anthropometric and ergonomic data from trisikad drivers and their trisikads respectively and determine the linear relationship of both factors in the development of low back pain disability. In determining the severity of low back pain disability for the respondents, the Oswestry Disability Index was administered to 176 out of 328 respondents -- trisikad drivers -- with ages ranging from 18 to 60 years old. These respondents were required to be affiliated to the selected barangays of Cebu City, specifically Barangay Guadalupe and Barangay Labangon.

   The average respondent was found to have a left arm length of 177.37 centimeters, right arm length of 177.65 centimeters, trunk length of 145.06 centimeters, leg length of 218.82 centimeters, spinal angle of 16.49 centimeters, exhibited posterior pelvic tilt, and a body mass index of 21.92. The average trisikad of the respondents was noted to have a bike frame size of 227.66 centimeters, seat angle of 9.74 degrees, seat height of 190.50 centimeters, handle height of 195.75 centimeters, and distance from seat to handle of 173.61 centimeters. The results of the Oswestry Disability showed that majority (90.9%) had minimal low back pain disability while only five and seven percent (5.7%) had moderate low back pain disability and three and four percent (3.4%) had maximal low back pain disability. It was noted that arm length of the respondents (left = 177.37cm and right = 177.65cm) as well as posterior pelvic tilt in using their trisikad, contributed to the imbalance of force distribution and adding strain on the back. In the anthropometric measurements and the ergonomic measurements as determinants of low back pain disability, significant subcategories that contribute to low back pain disability were the right and left arm (p=0.004) of the anthropometric measurements of the respondents, and the bike frame size (p=0.011), seat height (p=0.033), and handle height (p=0.023) of the ergonomic measurements of the trisikads (R2=0.145).

   In conclusion, right and left arm length of the trisikad driver, and the bike frame size, seat height, and handle height of the trisikad are determinants of low back pain disability for trisikad drivers in the selected barangays of Cebu City. The researchers recommend the respondents and other trisikad drivers be educated on proper body mechanics to prevent further development of low back pain disability. Local manufacturers of bicycles and trisikads are advised to consider modifications for a more ergonomic bike for prevention of low back pain in drivers. For future researchers, it is recommended that other barangays of Cebu be assessed to determine the variance of anthropometrics and level of low back pain disability.


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