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Gender differences in cardiovascular risk factors and management at a single center primary Preventive Cardiology Out-Patient Program: the Philippine Heart Center experience.


Emily Mae L. Yap,
Lucky  R. Cuenza,
Gerald  C. Vilela

Related Institution

Department of Adult Cardiology - Philippine Heart Center

Publication Information

Publication Type
Research Project
January 1-June 30, 2020


Background: Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in both genders worldwide. Gender differences in clinical presentation and treatment have been reported. 

Objective: This study aims to describe and compare the cardiovascular risk factors and management strategies for primary prevention among Filipinos.

Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was done on 2,082 patients at the Preventive Cardiology Clinic of the Philippine Heart Center from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2017. 

Results: Seventy-two percent of the patients were females with a higher mean age compared to males (57.67 + 10.50 vs 55.66 + 11.82, p 0.002). There were more women who were unemployed (75.2 vs 45.9, p<0.001). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of hypertension (68.6% vs 67.9%, p=0.542) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (19.8% vs 21.5%, p=0.437) in both genders. Beta blockers (24.1%), calcium channel blockers (22.9%) and angiotensin receptor blockers (22.1%) were the most commonly prescribed anti-hypertensive drugs. Biguanides were the most commonly prescribed glucose-lowering drug (11.3%). Compared to men, more women had dyslipidemia (51.8% vs 38.6%, p<0.001). Statins were more commonly prescribed in women (22.4 vs 18.1%, p=0.033). 

Conclusion: There were significantly more women seen in our Preventive Cardiology clinic. Smoking and alcoholic drinking were higher in males. Body mass index, total cholesterol and HDL levels were significantly higher in females than in males.

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Philippine Heart Center Medical Library Abstract Print Format

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