Report an error   
Advanced Search

A predictive study on demographic factors and level of perceived stress towards musculoskeletal pain among public elementary school teachers in Mandaue City: Recommendations for teachers' physical health program.


Ronnald A. Dandan,
Treya Krysyl S. Paquera,
John Christian V. Ramon,
Roselle Joanne L. Tarranza,
Jaia Marie A. Tiongzon,
Myler N. Ybarley,
Jan Ross Therese V. Sarmago

Related Institution

College of Rehabilitative Sciences – Department of Physical Therapy - Cebu Doctors' University

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Physical Therapy
Publication Date
March 2018


  Elementary school teachers are constantly subjected to a plethora of forces that make them vulnerable to developing musculoskeletal pain (MSP) in various body regions. The goal of the study was to determine the predicting factor that can cause MSP among public elementary school teachers in Mandaue City, and then provide recommendations based on the findings. A predictive design was used to determine which factors can predict MSP in each specific region. The respondents' demographic profile (Gender, Handedness, Age, Years of Teaching Experience, Body Mass Index (BMI)) were gathered, and the Musculoskeletal Pain and perceived level of stress were assessed using the Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ) by Dr. Alan Hedge and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) by Dr. Sheldon Cohen respectively.

  The results of the study showed that 91.2% of the public elementary school teachers in Mandaue City are female, and 8.8% are male. There are 91.7% right handed, while 8.3% are left-handed. 60.6% fall under the middle adulthood, 33% under early adulthood, and 6.4% under late adulthood. 39.6% have 0 to 10 years of teaching experience, 30.5% have 11 to 10 years, 26% have 21 to 30 years, and only 3.9% have 31 to 40 years of experience. 44.5% are classified normal according to BMI, 36.1% are overweight, 14.8% are obese, and 4.6% are underweight. 76% of the population have a moderate level of perceived stress, 16.6% have a low level, and 7.4% have a high level. The most prevalent areas of MSP were lower back (21%), neck (16.4%), and upper back (14%). The areas with the least complaints were left upper arm (0.57%), left lower leg (0.34%), and left thigh (0.11%). BMI was found to be the significant predicting factor for low back pain (p = 0.055); overweight individuals being more likely to experience low back pain than underweight individuals (OR = 1.969). In the neck region, stress was found to be the most significant predicting factor, where those with moderate (OR = 1.520) or high (OR = 2.183) are more likely to experience neck pain than those with a low level of stress. No significant predicting factor was found for the upper back region. Level of stress was determined to be a significant predictor for MSP in most body regions (17 out of 20 regions).

  Based on the findings, the researchers have concluded that perceived stress was the most significant predictor of MSP for the majority of body regions except the upper back and lower back. BMI was found to be a significant predictor for MSP in the lower back, hip/buttock, and right knee. Age and years of experience were predictors for right shoulder and left thigh regions. Gender was the most significant predictor in both the left and right feet. While, handedness predicts pain in the left wrist. The teachers are in need of extra measures to relieve stress and tension. Techniques that aid in weight loss should be beneficial to those overweight and obese individuals. Preventative efforts should be taken to avoid future development of MSP.


1. (). An expert interview with Dr. John Sarno, Part I: Back pain is a state of mind. . Retrieved March 25, 2018, from: http://https://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/478840?src=mp#vp_4
2. Arendt-Nielsen, L. , Fernández-de-las-Peñ, C. , Graven-Nielsen, T. . "Basic aspects of musculoskeletal pain: From acute to chronic pain" The Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy 19(4): 186–193, 2011. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1179/106698111X13129729551903
3. Baraza, O. T. , Simatwa, E. M. , Gogo, J. O. . "Levels of stress among secondary school teachers and its implication on students’ academic performance in Kenya: A case study of Kakamega North Sub County" Greener Journal of Educational Research 6(2): 052-056, 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.15580/gjer.2016.2.032816069
4. Barene, S. , Krustrup, P. , Holtermann, A. . "Effects of the workplace health promotion activities soccer and zumba on muscle pain, work ability and perceived physical exertion among female hospital employees" PLoS ONE 9(12): e115059, 2014. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0115059
5. Barut, C. , Ozer, C. M. , Sevinc, O. , Gumus, M. , Yunten, Z. . "Relationships between hand and foot preferences" International Journal of Neuroscience 117(2): 177-185, 2007. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1080/00207450600582033
6. Beri, N. . "Job satisfaction and teaching effectiveness of btc and special btc teachers in Uttar Pradesh" The International Journal of Indian Psychology 3(2): 128-136, 2016. Retrieved from: http://oaji.net/articles/2016/1170-1454923523.pdf
7. Bernard, B. P. . (). Musculoskeletal disorders and workplace factors. A critical review of epidemiologic evidence for work-related musculoskeletal disorders of the neck, upper extremity, and low back [NNHS (NIOSH) Publication No: 978141]. . Retrieved February 27, 2018, from: http://https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/docs/97-141/pdfs/97-141.pdf
8. Bratskeir, K. . (). 13 easy-to-do yoga poses for stress relief. . Retrieved March 12, 2018, from: http://https://www.huffingtonpost.com.au/entry/simple-yoga-poses-for-stress-relief_us_568403b5e4b06fa688819f74
9. Buckle, P. W. , Devereux, J. J. . "The nature of work-related neck and upper limb musculoskeletal disorders" Applied Ergonomics 33(3): 207-217, 2002. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1016/s0003-6870(02)00014-5
10. Cardoso, J. P. , Ribeiro, I. D. , de Araújo, T. M. , Carvalho, F. M. , Dos Reis, E. D. F. . "Prevalence of musculoskeletal pain among teachers" Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia 12(4): 604-614, 2009. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1590/s1415-790x2009000400010
11. Chen, W. Q. , Yu, I. T. , Wong, T. W. . "Impact of occupational stress and other psychosocial factors on musculoskeletal pain among Chinese offshore oil installation workers" Occupational and Environmental Medicine 62(4): 251-256., 2005. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1136/oem.2004.013680
12. Chismark, A. M. , Millar, D. . "Scaling and exercise strategies to prevent hand, wrist, and arm injuries" RDH Magazine. , May 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.rdhmag.com/articles/print/volume-34/issue-5/features/scaling-and-exercise-strategies-to-prevent-hand-wrist-and-arm-injuries.html
13. Chiu, T. T. , Lam, P. K. . "The prevalence of and risk factors for neck pain and upper limb pain among secondary school teachers in Hong Kong" Journal of Occupational Rehabilitation 17(1): 19-32, 2007. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1007/s10926-006-9046-z
14. Chowanadisai, S. , Kukiattrakoon, B. , Yapong, B. , Kedjarune, U. , Leggat, P. A. . "Occupational health problems of dentists in southern Thailand" International Dental Journal 50(1): 36-40, 2000. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1111/j.1875-595x.2000.tb00544.x
15. Ciolac, E. G. . "Exercise training as a preventive tool for age-related disorders: A brief review." Clinics 68(5): 710–717, 2013. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.6061/clinics/2013(05)20
16. Coenen, P. , Parry, S. , Willenberg, L. , Shi, J. W. , Romero, L. M. , Blackwood, D. M. , Straker, L. M. . "Associations of prolonged standing with musculoskeletal symptoms- A systematic review of laboratory studies" Gait and Posture 58, 310-318, 2017. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2017.08.024
17. Cornell University(). Cornell Musculoskeletal Discomfort Questionnaire (CMDQ). . Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: http://ergo.human.cornell.edu/ahmsquest.html
18. Da Costa, B.R. , Vieira, E.R. . "Stretching to reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders: A systematic Review" Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine 40(5): 321-328, 2008. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.2340/16501977-0204
19. Dalal, V. P. , Sheth, M. S. , Vyas, N. J. . "Effect of home-based ankle mobility and ankle strengthening exercises on balance in community dwelling older adults" Indian Journal of Physical Therapy 2(2): 9-11, 2014. Retrieved from: http://indianjournalofphysicaltherapy.in/ojs/index.php/IJPT/article/viewFile/43/46
20. Darwish, M. A. , Al-Zuhair, S. Z. . "Musculoskeletal pain disorders among secondary school saudi female teachers" Pain Research and Treatment 2013, 1-7, 2013. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1155/2013/878570
21. Deardorff, W. W. . (). How does stress cause back pain?. . Retrieved March 29, 2017, from: http://www.spine-health.com/conditions/depression/how-does-stress-cause-back-pain
22. Desai, M. S. , Patil, V. , Naik, R. . "Assessment of functional performance of lower extremity and effect of leg dominance on the same in young asymptomatic individuals." International Journal of Physiotherapy and Research 4(2): 1423-1428, 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.16965/ijpr.2016.110
23. Donnelly, J. , Jacobsen, D. , Heelan, K. S. , Seip, R. , Smith, S. . "The effects of 18 months of intermittent vs continuous exercise on aerobic capacity, body weight and composition and metabolic fitness in previously sedentary, moderately obese females" International Journal of Obesity 24(5): 566-572, 2000. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0801198
24. Dufour, A. B. , Broe, K. E. , Nguyen, U. D. T. , Gagnon, D. R. , Hillstrom, H. J. , Walker, A. H. , Hannan, M. T. . "Foot pain: Is current or past shoewear a factor?" Arthritis and Rheumatism 61(10): 1-15, 2009. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1002/art.24733.
25. El-Sayed Ebied, E. M. . "Work- related musculoskeletal pain among primary school teachers: A recommended health promotion intervention for prevention and management" World Journal of Nursing Sciences 1(3): 54-56, 2015. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.5829/idosi.wjns.2015.1.3.96136
26. Eres, F. , Atanasoska, T. . "Occupational stress of teachers: A comparative study between Turkey and Macedonia" International Journal of Humanities and Social Science 1(7): 59-65, 2011. Retrieved from: http://https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/1bb3/e18d9abd6136d647fbc84bf95ec4ef3e2e91.pdf
27. Erick, P. N. , Smith, D. R. . "A systematic review of musculoskeletal disorders among school teachers" BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 12(260): 2011. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1186/1471-2474-12-260
28. Erick, P. , Smith, D. . "Musculoskeletal disorder risk factors in the teaching profession: A critical review" OA Musculoskeletal Medicine 1(3): 29, 2013. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.13172/2052-9287-1-3-939
29. Eric, P. N. , Smith, D. R. . "The prevalence and risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders among school teachers in Botswana" Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs 2(4): 2014. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.4172/2329-6879.1000178
30. Faghri, P. D. , Chin, W. S. , Huedo-Medina, T. B. . "The link between musculoskeletal pain, lifestyle behaviors, exercise self-efficacy, and quality of life in overweight and obese individuals" International Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation 3, 255, 2015. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.4172/2329-9096.1000255
31. Fazli, B. , Ansari, H. , Noorani, M. , Jafari, S. M. , Sharifpoor, Z. , Ansari, S. . "The prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders and its predictors among Iranians’ Housewives" International Journal of Epidemiologic Research 2016 3(1): 53-62, 2016. Retrieved from: http://ijer.skums.ac.ir/article_14900_0.html
32. Feltoe, G. . (). Sources of teacher stress. Teachers Magazine. . Retrieved March 13, 2018, from: http://https://www.teachermagazine.com.au/articles/sources-of-teacher-stress
33. McEvoy, J. , O’Sullivan, K. , Bron, C. . Therapeutic exercises for shoulder region. Manual therapy for musculoskeletal pain syndromes 2016. 293- 386. . Retrieved from: http://https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=HYKICgAAQBAJ&pg=PA378&lpg=PA378&dq=Suggested%20parameters%20for%20isometric%20exercises%20include%20pain-free%205%20to%2010%20second%20holds%20with%2010%20repetitions%2C%20graded%20to%20maximal%20contraction%20a
34. Frilander, H. , Viikari-Juntura, E. , Heliövaara, M. , Mutanen, P. , Mattila, V. M. , Solovieva, S. . "Obesity in early adulthood predicts knee pain and walking difficulties among men: A life course study" European Journal of Pain 20(8): 1278-1287, 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1002/ejp.852.
35. Hartfiel, N. , Burton, C. , Rycroft-Malone, J. , Clarke, G. , HAvenhand, J. , Khalsa, S. B. , Edwards, R. T. . "Yoga for perceived stress and back pain at work" Occupational Medicine (London) 62(8): 606-612, 2012. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1093/occmed/kqs168
36. Hasan, A. . "A study of occupational stress of primary school teachers" Educationia Confab 3(2): 11-19, 2014. Retrieved from: http://confabjournals.com/confabjournals/images/204201440182.pdf
37. Hawke, F. , Burns, J. . "Understanding the nature and mechanism of foot pain" Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 2(1): 2009. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1186/1757-1146-2-1
38. Hill, C. L. , Gill, T. K. , Menz, H. B. , Taylor, A. W. . "Prevalence and correlates of foot in a population-based study: The North West Adelaide health study" Journal of Foot and Ankle Research 1(2): 2008. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1186/1757-1146-1-2
39. Houglum, P. A. , Bertoti, D. B. . Brunnstrom’s clinical kinesiology (6th ed.) Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company, 2012.
40. Hozumi, J. , Sumitani, M. , Matsubayashi, Y. , Abe, H. , Oshima, Y. , Chikuda, H. , Yamada, Y. . "Relationship between neuropathic pain and obesity" Pain Research and Management 2016, 1-6, 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1155/2016/2487924
41. Jay, K. , Friborg, M. , Sjøgaard, G. , Jakobsen, M. , Sundstrup, E. , Brandt, M. , Andersen, L. . "The consequence of combined pain and stress on work ability in female laboratory technicians: A cross-sectional study" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 12(12): 15834-1584, 2015. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.3390/ijerph121215024
42. Jin, K. . "Modern biological theories of aging." Aging and Disease 1(2): 72-74, 2010. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2995895/
43. Junnila, J. L. , Cartwright, V. M. . "Chronic musculoskeletal pain in children: Part I. Initial evaluation" American Family Physician 74(1): 115-122, 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.aafp.org/afp/2006/0701/p115.html
44. Kisner, C. , Colby, L. A. . Therapeutic exercise foundations and techniques (5th ed) Philadelphia, PA: F.A. Davis Company, 2002.
45. Koneru, S. , Tanikonda, R. . "Role of yoga and physical activity in work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dentists" Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry 5(3): 199-204, 2015. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.4103/2231-0762.159957
46. Korkmaz, N. C. , Cavlak, U. , Telci, E. A. . "Musculoskeletal pain, associated risk factors and coping strategies in school teachers" Scientific Research and Essay 6(3): 649-657, 2011. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.5897/SRE10.1064
47. Kumar, B. . "Poor posture and its causes. International Journal of Physical Education" Sports and Health 3(1): 177-178, 2016. Retrieved from: http://www.kheljournal.com/archives/2016/vol3issue1/PartD/3-1-4.1.pdf
48. Kumar, I. A. , Wani, Z. A. , Parrey, A. A. . "Occupational stress among male and female elementary school teachers of district Pulwama" International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research 4(4): 934-941, 2013. Retrieved from: http://https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/2872/78456160b7f8115bbd2f1f2a8397d7829043.pdf
49. Kumar, V. K. , Kumar, S. P. , Baliga, M. R. . "Prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal complaints among dentist in India: A national cross- sectional survey" Indian Journal of Dental Research 24(4): 428-438, 2013. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.4103/0970-9290.118387
50. Kumka, M. , Bonar, J. . "Fascia: A morphological description and classification system based on a literature review" The Journal of the Canadian Chiropractic Association 56(3): 179-191, 2012. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3430451/
51. Laskowski, E. R. . (). Are isometric exercises good for strength training?. . Retrieved April 7, 2018, from: http://https://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/fitness/expert-answers/isometric-exercises/faq-20058186
52. Lautenbacher, S. , Peters, J. H. , Heesen, M. , Scheel, J. , Kunz, M. . "Age changes in pain perception: A systematic-review and meta-analysis of age effects on pain and tolerance thresholds" Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews 75, 104-113, 2017. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2017.01.039
53. Lemouse, M. . (). Why is being underweight bad?. . Retrieved August 12, 2017, from: http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/14633/1/Why-Is-Being-Underweight-Bad.html
54. Lillie, A. K. , Read, S. , Mallen, C. , Croft, P. , Mcbeth, J. . "Musculoskeletal pain in older adults at the end-of-life: a systematic search and critical review of the literature with priorities for future research" BMC Palliative Care 12(27): 2013. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1186/1472-684x-12-27
55. Linaker, C. H. , Walker-Bone, K. . "Shoulder disorders and occupation" Best Practice & Research Clinical Rheumatology 29(3): 405-423, 2015. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1016/j.berh.2015.04.001
56. Lis, A. M. , Black, K. M. , Korn, H. , Nordin, M. . "Association between sitting and occupational LBP." European Spine Journal 16(2): 283-298, 2007. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1007/s00586-006-0143-7.
57. Lowering the Compulsory and Optional Retirement Age of Public School Teachers Act of 2016, S. 1287, 17th Cong.. 2016.
58. Luks, H. . (). Common reasons your shoulder is in pain. . Retrieved March 8, 2018, from: http://https://www.howardluksmd.com/orthopedic-social-media/5-reasons-your-shoulder-is-in-pain/
59. Lumley, M. A. , Cohen, J. L. , Borszcz, G. S. , Cano, A. , Radcliffe, A. M. , Porter, L. S. , Keefe, F. J. . "Pain and emotion: A biopsychosocial review of recent research" Journal of Clinical Psychology 67(9): 942–968, 2011. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1002/jclp.20816
60. Lynam, L. . "Assessment of acute foot and ankle sprains" Emergency Nurse 14(4): 24-34, 2006. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.7748/en2006.
61. Männikkö, K. , Sahlman, J. . "The effect of metatarsal padding on pain and functional ability in metatarsalgia" Scandinavian Journal of Surgery 106(4): 332-337, 2017. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1177/1457496916683090
62. Mannion, A. F. , Dumas, G. A. , Cooper, R. G. , Espinosa, F. J. , Faris, M. W. , Stevenson, J. M. . "Muscle fibre size and type distribution in thoracic and lumbar regions of erector spinae in healthy subjects without low back pain: normal values and sex differences" Journal of Anatomy 190(4): 505-513, 1997. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1046/j.1469-7580.1997.19040505.x
63. McFadden, D. , Bracht, M. S. . "Sex and race differences in the relative lengths of metacarpals and metatarsals in human skeletons" Early Human Development 85(2): 117-124., 2009. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1016/j.earlhumdev.2008.07.001
64. Messing, K. , Tissot, F. , Stock, S. . "Distal lower-extremity pain and work postures in the Quebec population" American Journal of Public Health 98(4): 705-713, 2008. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.2105/ajph.2006.099317
65. Miller, A. . (2012, December 17). Re: Overexertion in the workplace: Take it easy. . Retrieved March 6, 2017, from: http://www.clickandinc.com/blog/overexertion-in-the-workplace-take-it-easy/
66. Millett, P. J. , Gobezie, R. , Boykin, R. E. . "Shoulder osteoarthritis: Diagnosis and management" American Family Physician 78(5): 605-611, 2008. Retrieved from: http://https://www.aafp.org/afp/2008/0901/p605.html
67. Mohammadi, G. . "Analysis of musculoskeletal symptom among workers in rubber industry. Iranian Journal of Health" Safety and Environment 2(3): 335-340, 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.ijhse.ir/index.php/IJHSE/article/view/86
68. Mohan Kumar, G. , Revathi, R. , Ramachandran, S. . "Effectiveness of William’s Flexion Exercise in the Management of Low Back Pain" TJPRC: International Journal of Physiotherapy & Occupational Therapy 1(1): 33-40, 2015. Retrieved from: http://https://www.researchgate.net/publication/295278464_EFFECTIVENESS_OF_WILLIAM'S_FLEXION_EXERCISE_IN_THE_MANAGEMENT_OF_LOW_BACK_PAIN
69. Monson, A. L. , Chismark, A. M. , Cooper, B. R. , Krenik-Matejcek, T. M. . "Effects of yoga on musculoskeletal pain" Journal of Dental Hygeine, 91(2): 15-22, 2017. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29118252
70. Moreira-Silva, I. , Santos, R. , Abreu, S. , Mota, J. . "Associations between body mass index and musculoskeletal pain and related symptoms in different body regions among workers" SAGE Open 3(2): 2013. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1177/2158244013491952
71. Murray, S. , Mckinney, E. , Holub, K. S. , Jones , R. . Foundations of maternal-newborn and women's health nursing (7th ed.) 2013. . Retrieved from: http://https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=0w1FDwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false
72. National Center for Chronic Disease Preventive and Health Promotion(). How much physical activity do adults need?. . Retrieved March 13, 2018, from: http://https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/adults/index.htm
73. National Center for Chronic Disease Preventive and Health Promotion(). Measuring physical activity intensity. . Retrieved April 13, 2018, from: http://https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/basics/measuring/index.html
74. Nighswonger, T. . (). The costly problem of overexertion.. . Retrieved March 28, 2017, from: http://ehstoday.com/news/ehs_imp_34438
75. Okunribido, O. O. , Lewis, D. . "Work-related lower limb musculoskeletal disorders–A review of the literature" Paper presented at the Annual Conference of Ergonomics Society at Keele University, Stanford, 2009. . Retrieved from: http://https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286820282_Work-related_lower_limb_musculoskeletal_disorders_-_A_review_of_the_literature
76. Olivier, M. A. , Venter, D. J. . "The extent and causes of stress in teachers in the George region" South African Journal of Education 23(3): 186-192, 2003. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ajol.info/index.php/saje/article/view/24932
77. Ono, Y. , Imaeda, T. , Shimaoka, M. , Hiruta, S. , Hattori, Y. , Ando, S. , Tatsumi, A . "Associations of length of employment and working conditions with neck, shoulder and arm pain among nursery school teachers" Industrial Health 40(2): 149-158., 2002. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.2486/indhealth.40.149
78. Onyemaechi, N. O. , Anyanwu, G. E. , Obikili, E. N. , Onwuasoigwe, O. , Nwankwo, O. E. . "Impact of overweight and obesity on the musculoskeletal system using lumbosacral angle" Patient Preference and Adherence 10, 291-296, 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.2147/PPA.S90967
79. Park, S. . "Comparison of muscle activation during dominant hand wrist flexion when writing" Journal of Physical Therapy Science 25(12): 1529-1531, 2013. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1589/jpts.25.1529
80. Parsons, S. , Breen, A. , Foster, N. , Letley, L. , Pincus, T. , Vogel, S. , Underwood, M. . "Prevalence and comparative troublesomeness by age of musculoskeletal pain in different body locations" Family Practice 24(4): 308-316, 2007. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1093/fampra/cmm027
81. Pillastrini, P. , Mugnai, R. , Bertozzi, L. , Costi, S. , Curti, S. , Mattioli, S. , Violante, F. S. . "Effectiveness of an at-work exercise program in the prevention and management of neck and low back complaints in nursery school teachers" Industrial Health 47(4): 349-354, 2009. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.2486/indhealth.47.349
82. Pransky, G. , Benjamin, K. , Hill-Fotouhi, C. , Himmelstein, J. , Fletcher, K. E. , Katz, J. N. , Johnson, W. G. . "Outcomes in work-related upper extremity and low back injuries: Results of a retrospective study" American Journal of Industrial Medicine 37(4): 400-409, 2000. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1002/(sici)1097-0274(200004)37:43.0.co;2-c
83. Price, J. . (). Corrective exercise for prolonged static-posture damage. . Retrieved August 16, 2017, from: http://www.ideafit.com/fitness-library/corrective-exercise-for-prolonged-static-posture-damage
84. Pruitt, D. . (). The dangers of overexertion in the workplace. . Retrieved August 16, 2017, from: http://danpruittlawfirm.com/dangers-overexertion-workplace/
85. Rabhan(). Possible causes of experiencing back pain while standing. . Retrieved March 20, 2018, from: http://https://tuckahoeortho.com/blog/possible-causes-of-experiencing-back-pain-while-standing/
86. Rodrigues, E. V. , Gomes, A. R. , Tanhoffer, A. I. , Leite, N. . "Effects of exercise on pain of musculoskeletal disorders: A systematic review" Acta Ortopédica Brasileira 22(6): 334-338, 2014. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1590/1413-78522014220601004
87. Sambandam, S. N. , Khanna, V. , Gul, A. , Mounasamy, V. . "Rotator cuff tears: An evidence based approach" World Journal of Orthopedics 6(11): 902-1018, 2015. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.5312/wjo.v6.i11.902.
88. Seo, S. , Choi, J. , Joo, M. , Kim, J. , Chang, S. . "Effects of sling exercise and mcKenzie exercise program on neck disability, pain, muscle strength and range of motion in chronic neck pain" Journal of Physical Therapy Rehabilitation Science 1, 40-48, 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.jptrs.org/journal/view.html?volume=1&number=1&spage=40
89. Sethi, J. , Sandhu, J. S. , Imbanathan, V. . "Effect of Body Mass Index on work related musculoskeletal discomfort and occupational stress of computer workers in a developed ergonomic setup" Sport Medicine Arthoscopy Rehabilitation Therapy Technology 3(1): 2011. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1186/1758-2555-3-22
90. Schmitz, T. J. , O’Sullivan, S.B. . Examination of coordination and balance. Physical rehabilitation (6th ed.) Philadelphia, PA:: F. A. Davis Company, 2014. 206-250.
91. Sharma, P. , Golchha, V. . "Awareness among Indian dentist regarding the role of physical activity in prevention of work related musculoskeletal disorders" Indian Journal of Dental Research 22(3): 381-394, 2011. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.4103/0970-9290.87057
92. Shiri, P. , Karripnen, J. , Leino-Arjas, P. , Solovieva, S. , Viikari-Juntura, E. . "Association between obesity and low back pain: A meta-analysis" American Journal of Epidemiology 171(2): 135-144, 2009. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1093/aje/kwp356
93. Shiri, R. , Varonen, H. , Heliövaara, M. , Viikari-Juntura, E. . "Hand dominance in upper extremity musculoskeletal disorders" The Journal of Rheumatology, 34(5): 1076-1082, 2007. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17343320
94. Shuai, J. , Yue, P. , Li, L. , Liu, F. , Wang, S. . "Assessing the effects of an educational program for the prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among school teachers." BMC Public Health 14(1): 2014. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1186/1471-2458-14-1211
95. Smith, G. S. , Sorock, G. S. , Wellman, H. M. , Courtney, T. K. , Pransky, G. S. . "Blurring the distinctions between on and off the job injuries: similarities and differences in circumstances" Injury Prevention 12(4): 236–241, 2006. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1136/ip.2006.011676
96. Sprenger, Jeff . Stress and coping behaviors among primary school teachers. East Carolina University. 2011. . Retrieved from: http://hdl.handle.net/10342/3548
97. Stea, S. , Bordini, B. , Viceconti, M. , Traina, F. , Cervini, A. , Toni, A. . "Is laterality associated with a higher rate of hip arthroplasty on the dominant side?" Artificial Organs 32(1): 73-77, 2007. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1111/j.1525-1594.2007.00457.x
98. Strazdins, L. , Bammer, G. . "Women, work and musculoskeletal health" Social Science & Medicine 58(6): 997-1005, 2004. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1016/s0277-9536(03)00260-0
99. Tatera, K. . (2015, October 8). Who tolerates pain best - men or women?. . Retrieved March 30, 2017, from: http://thescienceexplorer.com/brain-and-body/who-tolerates-pain-best-men-or-women
100. Tezel, A. , Kavrut, F. , Tezel, A. , Kara, C. , Demir, T. , Kavrut, R. . "Musculoskeletal disorders in left- and right-handed Turkish Dental students" International Journal of Neuroscience 115(2): 255-266, 2005. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1080/00207450590519517
101. Thielke, S. , Sale, J. , Reid, M. C. . "Aging: Are these 4 pain myths complicating care?" Journal of Family Practice 61(11): 666-670, 2012. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4356472/
102. Tukker, A. , Visscher, T. L. S. , Picavet, H. S. J. . "Overweight and health problems of the lower extremities: Osteoarthritis, pain and disability" Public Health Nutrition 12(3): 359-368, 2008. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1017/S1368980008002103.
103. Verbeek, J. H. , van der Beek , A. J. . "Psychosocial factors at work and back pain: A prospective study in office workers" International Journal of Occupational Medicine and Environment Health 12(1): 29-39, 1999. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10360082
104. Viester, L. , Verhagen, E. A. , Hengel, K. M. O. , Koppes, L. L. , van der Beek , A. J. , Bongers, P. M. . "The relation between body mass index and musculoskeletal symptoms in the working population" BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders 14, 238, 2013. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1186/1471-2474-14-238
105. Werner, R. A. , Gell, N. , Hartigan, A. , Wiggermann, N. , Keyserling, W. M. . "Risk factors for foot and ankle disorders among assembly plant workers" American Journal of Industrial Medicine 53(12): 1233-1239, 2010. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1002/ajim.20898
106. White, R. S. , Jiang, J. , Hall, C. B. , Katz, M. J. , Zimmerman, M. E. , Sliwinski, M. , Lipton, R. B. . "Higher perceived stress scale scores are associated with higher pain intensity and pain interference levels in older adults" Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 62(12): 2350-2356, 2014. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1111/jgs.13135
107. Woodyard, C. . "Exploring the therapeutic effects of yoga and its ability to increase quality of life" International Journal of Yoga 4(2): 49-54., 2011. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.4103/0973-6131.85485
108. World Health Organization(). BMI classification. . Retrieved March 17, 2018, from: http://apps.who.int/bmi/index.jsp?introPage=intro_3.html
109. Wunderlich, R. E. , Cavanagh, P. R. . "Gender differences in adult foot shape: implications for shoe design." Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise 33(4): 605-611, 2001. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1097/00005768-200104000-00015
110. Yip, V. Y. B. . "New low back pain in nurses: work activities, work stress and sedentary lifestyle." Journal of Advanced Nursing 46(4): 430-440, 2004. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1111/j.1365-2648.2004.03009.x
111. Yue, P. , Liu, F. , Li, L. . "Neck/shoulder pain and low back pain among school teachers in China, prevalence and risk factors." BMC PublicHealth 12(789): 2012. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-789.

Physical Location

LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
Cebu Doctors' University - Main Library U9 P912d 2018 Fulltext Print Format

©2022 HERDIN PLUS. All rights reserved. | Contact Us | Keep up to date