Herland Emmanuel J. Bertulfo,
Cezanne Louise S. Borromeo,
Daffodils D. Paquibot,
Lovely Angel B. Tan,
Ellah C. Tiongzon,
Desiderio C. Asane
This study evaluated the effects of simulated acid rain using sulfuric acid on Phaseolus vulgaris. The study utilized twenty-four (24) drainage pots that were filled with mixed soil. Each pot was planted with six (6) seeds and at the center was a bamboo stick to serve as railing for the growing plants. All pots were randomly assigned into four (4) groups as to three (3) experimental groups and one (1) control group. Each group was correspondingly watered with their designated pH of 1L daily for sixty (60) days until the fruits were harvested. In connection to the investigation, the researchers also collected rainwater from three (3) different places: Cebu, Mandaue and Lapu-Lapu City. The collected rainwater's pH was determined. The initial yield of the fruit was determined through its weight using a weighing scale. Fruits were then sun dried to remove the moisture until a constant weight was obtained. Statistical analysis was not utilized since the data was not sufficient. Instead, the data collected was described qualitatively.
Plants that were exposed to 4.4 and 4.8 pH level died. The death was due to the damaging effect of the accumulated acid in the soil that has a direct affect to the roots of the plants. Soil having a pH of 5.6 and less is considered acidic. The soil exposed in acidic condition reduced its fertility making the plant loss its capability to produce a fruit, withering of leaves and thinning of stem. However, those plants that were exposed to pH 5.2 produced abnormal fruits with a total average weight of 2.5 grams. The control group which was exposed to pH of 7.0 had a total average weight of 70 grams. Watering the plants consecutively with pH of 4.8 and lower would result to the soil in an acidic condition. As the pH of the soil decreases, the concentration of the hydrogen ion and aluminum increases which results to the decrease in soil fertility that resulted to the difficulty in acquiring the nutrients needed for its growth. Acidic soil leads to reduction of fruit yield and negative effects on the health of the plants; thin stem, crinkled leaves and yellow spots were noticed that turned into browning of leaves which affected the photosynthesis. In this situation, the fruit yield decreases and beans harvested had a smaller size.
The results concluded that high acidity levels reduced the fertility of the plants. The researches recommend it is important to know at what pH level the green beans survive, other acids may be used to simulate acid rain, use pH values higher than pH level of 4.
4. Adeoye, E. , Allison, P. , Blackburn, C. , Blocker, M. , Grams, J. , Jones, S. , Ward, C. . (). The effects of simulated acid rain on corn seed germination. . Retrieved December 19, 2016, from: http://https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/35b7/d090dd75b9a75d2aa8b754c d4afd7fc916d2.pdf
6. Brewer, R . The science of ecology (2nd ed.) Philadelphia: Saunders College Publication., 1994.
10. Ferenbaugh, R.W. . "Effects of simulated acid rain on Phaseolus vulgaris L. (Fabaceae)" American Journal of Botany
63(3): 283- 288, 1976. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2441572
11. Ferguson, B.J. , Lin, M.H. , Gresshoff, P.M. . "Regulation of legume modulation by acidic growth conditions" Plant Signaling & Behavior
8(3): 23426, 2013. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.4161/psb.23426
18. Reddy, B. S. , Reddy, A. s. , Reddy, B. M. R. , Kumar, B. A. , Kumar, P. A. , Srujaya, I. , Mathew, C. M. . Effects of muriatic acid (simulated acid rain) on internode length and stem circumference of Maize plant (Zea mays). Cebu Doctors’University: Mandaue City. 2013.
22. Smith, T.M. , Smith, R.L. . Elements of ecology (9th ed.) Boston: Pearson Educational Limited., 2015.
23. Stiling, P.T. . Ecology: Theories and applications (2nd ed.) Upper Saddle River, New Jersey:: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1996.