Report an error   
Advanced Search

Demographic characteristics differences on the level of independence in the activities of daily living among the senior citizens of Barangay Subangdaku, Mandaue City: A basis for occupational therapy intervention.


Jannelle Joy D. Martinez,
Jessica Mae Martinito,
Prince Kimpoy L. Uy

Related Institution

College of Rehabilitative Sciences – Department of Occupational Therapy - Cebu Doctors' University

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Occupational Therapy
Publication Date
January 2016


     This study aimed to determine the demographic characteristics differences and Level of Independence in the Activities of Daily Living among senior citizens of barangay Subangdaku, Mandaue City to develop an Occupational Therapy Intervention. The study utilized a Descriptive Comparative Survey Design. The respondents included one hundred fifty-four (154) registered members of the Office of Senior Citizens Affair (OSCA) aged seventy-five (75) years old and above. A Simple Random Sampling method was used in data gathering for sample size selection. The study utilized a researcher-made demographic characteristics profiling sheet to gather the age, gender and living arrangements. Barthel Index was used to determine the level of independence in the Activities of daily Living of the respondents.

     The study found out that majority of the 154 respondents were aged 75-80 years old (79.22%). Most of the respondents in terms of gender and living arrangement were females (64.9%) and is living with family (90.3%). Majority of the respondents were also independent in their Activities of Daily Living (ADL) in all the specific areas which includes bowel, bladder, grooming, toilet use, feeding, transfer, mobility, dressing, stairs, and bathing. In terms of the level of independence in ADL according to their demographic characteristics, a significant decline in the level of independence was observed from the data as the age of the respondents increased. In gender, majority if the female population were independent in most areas except bowels, transfers, dressing and stairs use. And lastly, those who are living alone are more independent in most areas except bowels, feeding and bathing. The Occupation Therapy Intervention focused on the energy conservation, work simplification and joint protection techniques to address transfers, mobility and stairs use that has the lowest percentage of independence due to the physiologic decline brought about by old age.

     After having the data collected and statistically analyzed, the researchers concluded that majority of the respondents were aged 75-80 years old, females and living alone were more independent in ADLs. The researchers recommended that the respondents practice the energy conservation, work simplification and joint protection techniques in the intervention program to increase independence and participation in daily activities. The caregivers, family members and the local government are also recommended to identify the capacities and limitations of the elderly. This could help increase their ADL participation as well as promote better quality of life. For future studies, the researcher would like to recommend the inclusion of elderly with different conditions and more barangays for a more diverse population; include the level of independence in the other areas of occupations of the elderly; and to conduct a study regarding the effectiveness of the occupational therapy intervention developed from this study.


1. Abejo, S. . (2004, October 4). Living arrangements of the elderly in the Philippines. 9th National Convention on Statistics. . Retrieved February 19, 2016, from: http://nap.psa.gov.ph/ncs/9thncs/papers/population_LivingArrangements.pdf
2. Ahmed, H. I. , Mohamed, E. E. , Aly, S. M. . "Effect of mobility on the quality of life among older adults in geriatric home at Makkah Al-Mukarramah" Advances in Life Science and Technology 17, 39-50, 2014. Retrieved from: http://iiste.org/Journals/index.php/ALST/article/view/10825
3. American Occupational Therapy Association"Guidelines for supervision, roles, and responsibilities during the delivery of occupational therapy services" American Journal of Occupational Therapy 63(6): 797–803, 2009. Retrieved from: http://ajot.aota.org/article.aspx?articleid=1867156
4. American Occupational Therapy Association"Occupational Therapy practice framework: Domain and process (3rd ed.)" American Journal of Occupational Therapy 68, S1-S48, 2014. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10 .5014/ajot.2014.68200
5. Benfield, E. , Moolaseril, J. . (). Energy conservation: A compensatory approach.. . Retrieved February 3, 2016, from: http://www.msconnectionsconference.ca/wp-content/uploads/2015/03/2014-09-19_Presentation07.pdf
6. Bonder, B. , Haas, V.D. . Functional performance in older adults (3rd ed.) Philadelphia: F.A. Davis Company, 2009.
7. (). Energy conservation and work simplification. . Retrieved January 24, 2015, from: http://www.bmhvt.org/services/rehab-services/occupational-therapy/energy-conservation-and-work-simplification
8. Bravell, M.E. , Berg, S. , Malmberg, B. . "Health, functional capacity, formal care, and survival in the oldest old: A longitudinal study" Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics 46(1): 1-14, 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17368828
9. Broomsfield, J. . (). Ageing changes in the urinary system. . Retrieved February 21, 2016, from: http://www.allhealth.com.au/html/s02_article/article_view.asp?nav_top_id=15&id=15&art_id=24655&nav_cat_id=233&history=2&cr=true
10. Bürge, E. , Berchtold, A. , von Gunten, A. . "Gender-related ADL performance of old people recently admitted to a Swiss nursing home. A cross-sectional study" Swiss Med Weekly 141, 1-15, 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21528463
11. Burgio, K. . "Lifestyle and behavioral therapies for urinary incontinence" Glob. libr. women , 2014. Retrieved from: http://https://www.glowm.com/section_view/heading/Lifestyle%20and%20Behavioral%20Therapies%20for%20Urinary%20Incontinence/item/855#sectionView
12. Canadian Association of Occupational Therapist(). Energy conservation/ shortness of breath/ decreased activity tolerance. . Retrieved March 7, 2016, from: http://www.caot.ca/default.asp?pageid=1326
13. Carlos, C. . "Concern of the elderly in the Philippines" Philippine Social Sciences Review 56(4): 1-40, 1999. Retrieved from: http://journals.upd.edu.ph/index.php/pssr/article/view/1279/1616
14. Chappell, N.L. , Cooke, H.A. . (). Age related disabilities - aging and quality of life.. . Retrieved January 23, 2016, from: http://cirrie.buffalo.edu/encyclopedia/en/article/189/
15. Dean, M. , Raats, M. M. , Grunert, K. G. , Lumbers, M. . The Food in Later Life Team"Factors influencing eating a varied diet in old age" Public Health Nutrition. 12(12): 2421-2427, 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19344544
16. Drewnowski, A. , Evans, W. J. . "Nutrition, physical activity, and quality of life in older adults summary" The Journals of Gerontology 56(2): 89-94, 2001. Retrieved from: http://biomedgerontology.oxfordjournals.org/content/56/suppl_2/89.full.pdf
17. (). Elderly fecal incontinence: Symptoms & care.. . Retrieved January 21, 2016, from: http://www.aplaceformom.com/senior-care-resources/articles/fecal-incontinence
18. Energy Conservation Techniques. Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing . Retrieved from: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/energy+conservation+techniques
19. Gill, T. M. , Baker, D. I. , Gottschalk, M. , Peduzzi, P. N. , Allore, H. , Byers, A. . "A program to prevent functional decline in physically frail, elderly persons who live at home" New England Journal of Medicine 347(14): 1068-1074, 2002. Retrieved from: http://www.nejm.org/doi/pdf/10.1056/NEJMoa020423
20. Gill, T. M. , Williams, C. S. , Mendes de Leon, C. F. , Tinetti, M. E. . "The role of change in physical performance in determining risk for dependence in activities of daily living among nondisabled community-living elderly persons" Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 50(7): 765-772, 1997. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9253386
21. Giraldo, C. . (). Joint protection principles. . Retrieved February 3, 2016, from: http://www.noramedicalgroup.com/docs/Joint%20Protection%20Principles%20R.pdf
22. Goode, P. S. , Burgio, K. L. , Halli, A. D. , Jones, R. W. , Richter, H. E. , Redden, D. T. , Baker, P. S. , Allman, R. M. . "Prevalence and correlates of fecal incontinence in community‐dwelling older adults" Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 53(4): 629-635, 2005. Retrieved from: http://https://www.researchgate.net/publication/7919692_Prevalence_and_Correlates_of_Fecal_Incontinence_in_Community-Dwelling_Older_Adults
23. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University"Dealing with urinary incontinence" Science Daily , January 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/01/140106132955.htm
24. Hudakova, A. , Hornakova, A. . "Mobility and quality of life in elderly and geriatric patients" International Journal of Nursing and Midwifery 3(7): 81-85, 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1379411601_Hudakova%20and%20%20Hornakova.pdf
25. Inocian, E. P. , Inocian, E. P. , Ysatam, E. I. . "The dependency needs in the activities of daily living performance among Filipino elderly" International Research Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 2(2): 44-49, 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.netjournals.org/z_IRJMMS_14_002.html
26. International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders(). Incontinence treatment: strategies for establishing bowel control. . Retrieved February 24, 2016, from: http://www.aboutincontinence.org/site/treatment/management
27. International Foundation for Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders(). Bowel incontinence and aging.. . Retrieved January 20, 2016, from: http://www.aboutincontinence.org/site/living-with-incontinence/aging
28. Joint Protection. Mosby . Retrieved from: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/joint+protection
29. Katz, P. . "Measures of adult functional status." Arthritis & Rheumatism (Arthritis Care and Research) 49(5S): S15-S27, 2003. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/art.11415/epdf
30. Kirkwood, T. . "Why women live longer: Stress alone does not explain the longetivity gap" Scientific American , 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.scientificamerican.com/article/why-women-live-longer/
31. Klausner, A. P. , Vapnek, J. M. . "Urinary incontinence in the geriatric population" The Mount Sinai journal of medicine, New York 70(1): 54-61, 2003. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12516010
32. Lucentales, R. . (). The Philippine response to the challenges of ageing. . Retrieved March 10, 2014, from: http://www.mhlw.go.jp/bunya/kokusaigyomu/asean/asean/kokusai/siryou/dl/h16_philippines2.pdf
33. Machado, F. N. , Machado, A. N. , Soares, S. M. . (). Comparison between ability and performance: a study on the functionality of dependent elderly individuals. . Retrieved January 19, 2016, from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/rlae/v21n6/0104-1169-rlae-21-06-01321.pdf
34. Mahoney, F.I. , Barthel, D. . (). Barthel index. . Retrieved December 10, 2015, from: http://https://www.statisticssolutions.com/barthel-index-bi/
35. Martel, L. , Belanger, A. , Berthelot, J.M. . "Loss and recovery of independence among seniors" Health Reports 13(4): 35-48, 2002. Retrieved from: http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/82-003-x/2001004/article/6316-eng.pdf
36. Mathew, R. . "Energy conservation" Advance custom promotions for Occupational Therapy Practitioners 24(22): 40, 2008. Retrieved from: http://occupational-therapy.advanceweb.com/Article/Energy-Conservation-1.aspx
37. McIntyre, A. , Atwal, A. . Occupational Therapy and older people (1st ed.) United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2005.
38. McIntyre, A. , Atwal, A. . Occupational Therapy and older people (2nd ed.) United Kingdom: Blackwell Publishing Ltd., 2013.
39. Nygren, C. , Oswald, F. , Wahl, H. , Schilling, O. , Fange, A. , Sixsmith, J. , Szeman, Z. , Tomsone, S. , Iwarsson, S. . "Relationships between housing and healthy aging in very old age" The Gerontologist 47(1): 96-107, 2007. Retrieved from: http://https://www.psychologie.uni-heidelberg.de/mediendaten/ae/apa/nygren_2007.pdf
40. Padilla, R. , Connon, S. , Lohman, H. . Occupational Therapy with elders (3rd  ed.) Maryland: Elsevier-Mosby, 2012.
41. Pendleton, H. M. , Krohn, W. . Pedretti United States: Elsevier, 2013.
42. Philippine Commission on Women(). Population, families and household statistics. . Retrieved January 19, 2016, from: http://www.pcw.gov.ph/statistics/201405/population-families-and-household-statistics
43. Philippine Statistics Authority(). Population of Mandaue City reached 300 thousand (Results from 2010 census of population and housing). . Retrieved March 10, 2014, from: http://psa.gov.ph/content/population-mandaue-city-reached-300-thousand-results-2010-census-population-and-housing
44. Public Health Agency of Canada(). Seniors and aging – bladder control problems (Incontinence). . Retrieved January 20, 2016, from: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/hl-vs/alt_formats/pacrb-dgapcr/pdf/iyh-vsv/med/incont-eng.pdf
45. Puchta, C. , Fitzwater, E. . (). Aging and function: examining impact on daily living. . Retrieved February 6, 2016, from: http://nursing.uc.edu/content/dam/nursing/docs/CFAWD/LookCloserSeeMe/Module%202_GDST_Reference%20Guide.pdf
46. Rodriguez, D. . (). How aging affects your digestive health. . Retrieved March 12, 2016, from: http://www.everydayhealth.com/digestive-health/dealing-with-a-sensitive-gut.aspx
47. Rubio, E. , Lazaro, A. , Sanchez , A. . "Social participation and independence in activities of daily living: a cross sectional study" BMC Geriatics 9(26): 1471-2318, 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19583855
48. Sereny, M. . (). Living arrangement of older adults in china: the interplay among preferences, realities, and health. . Retrieved February 20, 2016, from: http://https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/jahia-events/webdav/site/global/groups/events_calendar/public/Doha/Sereny_Concordance_Paper.pdf
49. Sinoff, G. , Ore, L. . "The Barthel activities of daily living index: Self-reporting versus actual performance in the old-old (> or = 75 years)" Journal of American Geriatrics Society 45(7): 832-6, 1997. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9215334
50. Stark, S. , Landsbaum, A. , Palmer, J. , Somerville, E. , Morris, J. . ". Client-centered home modifications improve daily activity performance of older adults" Canadian Journal of Occupation Therapy 76, 235-245, 2010. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2857667/
51. Strawbridge, W. J. , Kaplan, G. A. , Camacho, T. , Cohen, R. D. . "The dynamics of disability and functional change in an elderly cohort: results from the Alameda County Study" Journal of the American Geriatrics Society 40(8): 799-806, 1992. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1386090
52. Tiedemann, A. C , Sherrington, C. , Lord, S. R. . "Physical and psychological factors associated with stair negotiation performance in older people" The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 62(11): 1259-1265, 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18000146
53. Verghese, J. , Wang, C. , Xue, X. , Holtzer, R. . "Self-reported difficulty in climbing up or down stairs in nondisabled elderly" Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation 89(1): 100-104, 2008. Retrieved from: http://www.archives-pmr.org/article/S0003-9993(07)01611-5/pdf
54. Verhagen, T. E. , Janssen, A. L. . "Fecal incontinence in community-dwelling elderly: findings from a study of prevalence, consultation of physicians" psychosocial aspects and treatment 145(15): 741-744, 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11332258
55. von Strauss, E. , Torres, H. , Kareholt, I. , Winblad, B. , Fratiglion, L. . "Women are more disabled in basic activities of daily living than men only in very advanced ages: A study on disability, morbidity, and mortality from the Kungsholmen Project" Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 56(7): 669-677, 2003. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12921936
56. Wang, D. , Zheng, J. , Kurosawa, M. , Inaba, Y. , Kato, N. . "Changes in activities of daily living (ADL) among elderly Chinese by marital status, living arrangement, and availability of healthcare over a 3-year period" Environmental health and preventive medicine 14(2): 128-141, 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2684772/
57. Work Simplification. Mosby . Retrieved from: http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/work+simplification
58. World Health Organization(). Ageing. . Retrieved March 10, 2014, from: http://www.who.int/topics/ageing/en/

Physical Location

LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
Cebu Doctors' University - Main Library U6 M366 2016 Fulltext Print Format

©2022 HERDIN PLUS. All rights reserved. | Contact Us | Keep up to date