i
Report an error   
Advanced Search


In-vitro anticoagulant effect of citric acid from Citrofortunella microcarpa (kalamansi) fruit.

Author

Ariel Joseph Abellana,
Destiny Allison Maglasang,
Allen Christian Magos,
Cherrylyn Mae Miel,
Jean Althea Napigquit,
Micole Natividad,
Ghen Christelle Pepito,
Ma. Shaira Perigo,
Jeuis Khen Resuento,
Diane May Tugonon,
Lorreine Denise W. Castañares

Related Institution

College of Allied Medical Sciences - Medical Technology Department - Cebu Doctors' University

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis/Dissertations
Thesis Degree
BS
Specialization
Medical Technology
Publication Date
November 2018

Abstract

            In a previous study, it was proven that citrus fruits such as Citrus limon contain citric acid that when neutralized can be used as an alternative to the anticoagulant, sodium citrate. However, there are insufficient experimental studies that have been conducted to prove the same property found in fruits of the same family. This study, therefore, aimed to prove the in vitro anticoagulant property of another fruit, Kalamansi (Citrofortunella microcarpa). The participants involved in this study are thirty-four (34) students from Cebu Doctors' University that have not undergone anticoagulant therapy and have normal Prothrombin Time and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time. Single-blind randomized controlled trial was used to determine the anticoagulant activity of the citric acid component that was extracted from Citrofortunella microcarpa. The extract was tested for its efficacy as an alternative to sodium citrate in determining Prothrombin Time and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time.
          Results showed that the citric acid isolated from Citrofortunella microcarpa extract does not have enough anticoagulant properties due to the formation of clot. The experimental group yielded a frequency of 17 clotted samples, a percentage distribution of 100% with a mean clotting time of 6.2 minutes.
          Based on the findings, it is concluded that citric acid extracted from kalamansi cannot be used as an anticoagulant alternative to Sodium Citrate due to its failure in preventing the coagulation process. The researchers would like to recommend the following: employ a quantitative test on the concentration of citric acid, evaluate the citric acid of another citrus fruit with a higher citric acid concentration, and the use of other methods in isolating citric acid.

References

1. Adcock, D. M. , Kressin, D. C. , Marlar, R. A. . "Effect of 3.2% vs. 3.8% sodium citrate concentration on routine coagulation testing" American Journal of Clinical Pathology 107(1): 105-110, 1997. Retrieved from: http://https://www.researchgate.net/publication/14228363_Effect_of_32_vs_38_Sodium_Citrate_Concentration_on_Routine_Coagulation_Testing
2. Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture(). Chemistry and technology of citrus, citrus products, and byproducts [Agriculture Handbook No. 98]. . Retrieved April 18, 2018, from: http://https://naldc-legacy.nal.usda.gov/naldc/download.xhtml?id=CAT87210994&content=PDF
3. Al-Snafi, A.E. . "Nutritional value and pharmacological importance of citrus species grown in Iraq" IOSR Journal of Pharmacy 6(8): 76- 108, 2013. Retrieved from: http://iosrphr.org/papers/v6i8V1/H0680176108.pdf
4. Anticoagulant. Merriam-Webster’s online dictionary . Retrieved from: http://https://www.merriam- webster.com/dictionary/anticoagulant
5. Bersamin, S. V. , Legaspi, A. S. , Macalincag, N. G. . (). Studies on the effect of calamansi (Citrus mitis) juice on the preservation of suahe or shrimps (Genus Peneus). . Retrieved November 1, 2018, from: http://www.fao.org/3/a-bm491e.pdf
7. Brown, B.A. . Hematology: Principles and procedures (5th ed.) Philadelphia: Lea & Fegiger, 1988.
8. (). Calamansi production guide. . Retrieved April 5, 2018, from: http://https://businessdiary.com.ph/4343/calamansi-production-guide/
9. Chamber of Herbal Industries of the Philippines, Inc.(). The Philippine natural health products industry roadmap. . Retrieved April 4, 2018, from: http://industry.gov.ph/wp-content/uploads/2015/05/7th-TID-Mr.-Abelardes- Presentation- on-Natural-Health-Products.pdf
10. The Chemical Company(). Citric acid. . Retrieved April 5, 2018, from: http://https://thechemco.com/chemical/citric-acid/
11. Ciriminna, R. , Meneguzzo, F. , Delisi, R. , Pagliaro, M. . "Citric acid: Emerging applications of key biotechnology industrial product" Chemistry Central Journal 11(22): 2017. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1186/s13065-017- 0251-y
12. (). Citric acid. . Retrieved April 5, 2018, from: http://https://www.sciencedaily.com/terms/citric_acid.htm
13. Citric acid. New World Encyclopedia 2008. . Retrieved from: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Citric_acid
14. Citrus. New World Encyclopedia 2013. . Retrieved from: http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Citrus
15. Clotting. The Free Dictionary . Retrieved from: http://https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/clotting
16. Cohen, B. . (). How does the anticoagulant citrate work?. . Retrieved April 16, 2018, from: http://https://healthfully.com/anticoagulant-citrate-work- 5234167.html
17. Cortes, K.C. . Laboratory manual in clinical hematology (MT 40) Mandaue City: Cebu Doctors’ University Medical Technology Department, 2011.
18. Crisostomo, B. J. , Declaro, R. A. , Mamba, S. , Rogelio, M. G. , Siccion, R. C. , Yap, M. A. . A comparative study of the in-vitro anticoagulant properties of calamansi and lemon as alternative sources of Sodium citrate for Prothombin Time and Partial Thromboplastin Time. University of Santo Tomas, Manila.. 2006.
19. Daneshfar, A. , Baghlani, M. , Sarabi, R. S. , Sahraei, R. , Abassi, S. , Kaviyan, H. , Khezeli, T. . "Solubility of citric, malonic, and malic acids in different solvent from 303.2 to 333.2K" Fluid Phase Equilibria 313, 11-15, 2011. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1016/j.fluid.2011.09.033
20. Douma, M. , curator, . Plants & flowers. Causes of color 2008. . Retrieved from: http://www.webexhibits.org/causesofcolor/7H.html
21. Edward Reference Lab.(). To acquire a plasma specimen that is platelet poor for special coagulation testing. . Retrieved May 10, 2018, from: http://https://www.testmenu.com/edward/TestDirectory/SiteFile?fileName=sideb ar%5CPlatelet%20Poor%20Plasma.pdf
22. Fritsma, G.A. . Laboratory evaluation of hemostasis. Rodak’s hematology: Clinical principles and applications (5th ed.) Singapore: Elsevier, 2016. 760-809.
23. Fritsma, M.G. , Fritsma, G.A. . Normal hemostasis and coagulation. Rodak’s hematology: Clinical principles and applications (5th ed.) Singapore: Elsevier, 2016. 642-666.
24. Gattuso, G. , Barreca, D. , Gargiulli, C. , Leuzzi, U. , Caristi, C. . "Flavonoid composition of citrus juices" Molecules 12(8): 1641- 1673, 2007. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.3390/12081641
25. Hackett, E. , LePage, R. . "The clotting of the blood of an amphibian, Bufo Marinus Linn. 1. Prothrombin-Thrombin and Fibrinogen-Fibrin stages" Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science 39, 57-65, 1961. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1038/icb.1961.6
26. (). Hemostasis: PT and PTT tests. . Retrieved April 27, 2018, from: http://www.medicine.mcgill.ca/physio/vlab/bloodlab/PT_PTT.htm
27. "The influence of calcium of citric acid on blood coagulation." JAMA LII(10): 778-779, 1909. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1001/jama.1909.02540360034010
28. Khan, S.A. , Ahmad, R. , Asad, S. A. , Shahzad, M. . Citrus flavonoids: Their biosynthesis, functions and genetic improvement. Citrus: Molecular phylogeny, antioxidant properties and medicinal uses 2014. 31-50. . Retrieved from: http://https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263241533_Citrus_flavon oids_Their_biosynthesis_functions_and_genetic_improvement
29. Kim, C. . (). How to extract citric acid from fruit.. . Retrieved April 5, 2018, from: http://www.ehow.co.uk_/how_8165890_extract-citric-acid- fruit.html
30. Kozlowska, A. , Szostak-Wegierek, D. . "Flavonoids-food sources and health benefits" Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny, 65(2): 79-85, 2014. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25272572
31. Kyle, R.A. . "The American Society of Hematology: A success at age 50: Blood banking and sodium citrate" Blood 111, 4417-4418, 2008. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1182/blood-2008-02-137380
32. Laboratory Corporation of America Holdings(). Secondary hemostasis. . Retrieved April 29, 2018, from: http://https://www.labcorp.com/resource/secondary-hemostasis#
33. Lind, M. . (). List of foods with flavonoids. . Retrieved October 30, 2018, from: http://https://www.livestrong.com/article/73159-list-foods- flavonoids/
34. Malhotra, S.K. . (). Re: Why the organic acids in the most fruits decrease at ripening state. . Retrieved December 6, 2018, from: http://https://www.researchgate.net/post/Why_the_organic_acids_in_the_most_ of_fruits_decrease_at_ripening_stage
35. Mallick, N. , Khan, R.A. . "Effect of Citrus sinensis (sweet orange) on coagulation" South Asian Journal of Experimental Biology 4(2): 54- 60, 2014. Retrieved from: http://file:///D:/My%20Documents/Downloads/EffectofCitrussinensisSweet Orang eoncoagulation.pdf
36. Mass, M. , Campbell, R. . "When shortages strike medical supplies." The Washington Times , March 2018. Retrieved from: http://https://washingtontimes.com/news/2018/mar/14/when- shortages-strike-medical-supplies/
37. MMP International Development and Manufacturing Inc.(). Kalamansi PLG-4 extract. . Retrieved April 7, 2018, from: http://https://www.in- cosmetics.com/__novadocuments/2520
38. Mollison, P.L. . "The introduction of citrate as an anticoagulant for transfusion and of glucose as a red cell preservative" British Journal of Haematology 108(1): 13-18, 2000. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1046/j.1365- 2141.2000.01827.x
39. NileRed(2017, January 14). Extracting citric acid from lemons. . Retrieved September 10, 2018, from: http://https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FMtavizdFiw&feature=share
40. Panche, A. N. , Diwan, A. D. , Chandra, S. R. . "Flavonoids: An overview" Journal of Nutritional Science 5(57): 1-15, 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1017/jns.2016.41
41. Regional Medical Laboratory.(). Coagulation tube collection. . Retrieved October 25, 2018, from: http://https://www.rmlonline.com/site/sections/262
42. Riaz, A. , Khan, R. A. , Mirza, T. , Mustansir, T. , Ahmed, M. . "In vitro/in vivo effect of Citrus limon (L. Burm. f.). juice on blood parameters, coagulation and anticoagulation factors in rabbits" Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 27(4): 907-915, 2014. Retrieved from: http://https://www.researchgate.net/publication/263863107_In_vitroin_vivo_effect_of_Citrus_limon_L_Burm_f_juice_on_blood_parameters_coagulation_and_anticoagulation_factors_in_rabbits
43. Sotto, R.C. . (). Citrofortunella microcarpa (PROSEA). . Retrieved April 5, 2018, from: http://https://uses.plantnet-project.org/en/Citrofortunella_microcarpa_(PROSEA)
44. Tariq, V. N. , Stefani, L. A. J. , Butcher, A. C. . "Citric acid production: A practical introduction to biotechnology for first-year undergraduate students" Biochemical Education 23(3): 145-148, 1995. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1016/0307-4412(95)00039-6
45. Turgeon, M.L. . Clinical hematology: Theory and procedures (5th ed.) Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2012.
46. Tyagi, S. , Sahay, S. , Imran, M. , Rashmi, K. , Mahesh, S. S. . "Pre-harvest factors influencing the postharvest quality of fruits: A review" Current Journal of Applied Science and Technology 23(4): 1-12., 2017. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.9734/BJAST/2017/32909
47. Vandenberghe, L.P.S. , Soccol, C. R. , Pandey, A. , Lebeault, J. M. . "Microbial production of citric acid" Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology 42(3): 1999. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1590/S1516-89131999000300001
48. World Health Organization(). Use of anticoagulants in diagnostic laboratory investigations. . Retrieved May 1, 2018, from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/65957/1/WHO_DIL_LAB_99 .1_RE V.2.pdf
49. Yang, J., . (). Preparing shelf-stable citrus juice and drinks at home. . Retrieved April 17, 2018, from: http://cnas-re.uog.edu/wp- content/uploads/2016/09/Citrus_Drink_9_12_16.pdf

Physical Location

LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
Cebu Doctors' University - Main Library U4 In8 2018 Fulltext Print Format

 
Loading…
©2022 HERDIN PLUS. All rights reserved. | Contact Us | Keep up to date