Report an error   
Advanced Search

Effect of the synthesis model of intervention on the level of pragmatic skills among children with pragmatic language impairment in P.R.I.M.E. Center Foundation Inc.


Cassiopiea T. Aquino,
Katrina Jade C. Durano,
Kassandra Noreen G. Macario,
Raiza Camille B. Nuer,
Genevive M. Roble-Quinto

Related Institution

College of Rehabilitative Sciences - Speech-Language Pathology - Cebu Doctors' University

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Speech-Language Pathology
Publication Date
March 2019


   This research aimed to determine the effect of the synthesis model of intervention on the level of pragmatic skills among children aged 5:0-5:11 in P.R.I.M.E. Center Foundation Inc. The study followed a randomized pretest/ post-test design. The subjects were 10 students found to have low pragmatic skills and were randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. This study utilized the Test of Pragmatic Skills (TPS) by Shulman (1986) in assessing the subjects' pragmatic skills. The synthesis model of intervention was given in a span of eight (8) weeks with three (3) one-hour sessions per week. It had four (4) phases, each phase lasting for two (2) weeks. Only the experimental group was given intervention using the synthesis model while the control group did not receive any treatment. After eight (8) weeks, the TPS was administered for post-test results.

   The researchers collected and analyzed the experimental and control group's pragmatic skills scores. The average pre-test scores of the subjects in the experimental group was 19.20 with a standard deviation of 4.55 and the control group was 16.60 and a standard deviation of 5.68, which indicate low pragmatic skills. On the other hand, the average posttest scores of the experimental group was 32.30 with a standard deviation of 3.49, which indicate high pragmatic skills and the control group's scores was 19.40 and a standard deviation of 6.19, which indicate low pragmatic skills. Paired t-test showed that there was a significant difference between the pre-test and post-test scores in the experimental group at .05 level of significance, t(4) = 6.895, p < .05, r = 0.96. However, there was no significant difference between the pre-test and post-test of the control group at .05 level of significance, t(4) = 2.476, p > .05. Lastly, independent t-test showed that the post-test scores between the experimental and control group yielded a mean difference of 12.90 and an effect size of 0.82, which showed that the experimental group had significantly higher scores than the control group, t(8) = -4.059, p < .05.

   After the results were analyzed, it was found that the synthesis model is effective in improving the level of pragmatic skills of 5 year old Cebuano children. Furthermore, the researchers recommended to use the TPS tool in determining high or low pragmatic skills, inform the parents and teachers about the effect of the synthesis model of intervention, let the future interns learn how to administer the TPS, and to use the synthesis model as an Evidence-Based Practice (EBP) for future students. In the interest of future studies, it is recommended to further explore different age groups, assessment tools, and research environments, conduct a quantitative study about the improvement of pragmatic skills, explore non-Cebuano speaking children, increase the size of the population, provide control on the environments, and conduct the study using different intervention duration.


1. Adams, C. . "Intervention for developmental pragmatic language impairment" Aula Abierta 82, 79-95, 2003. Retrieved from: http://https://dialnet.unirioja.es/descarga/articulo/1012055.pdf
2. Adams, C. , Lloyd, J. . "The effects of speech and language therapy intervention on children with pragmatic language impairments in mainstream school" British Journal of Special Education 34(4): 226-232, 2007. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8578.2007.00483.x
3. Adams, C. , Lloyd, J. , Aldred, C. , Baxendale, J. . "Exploring the effects of communication intervention for developmental pragmatic language impairments: A signal-generation study" International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders, 41(1): 41-65, 2006. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1080/13693780500179793
4. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association(). Social communication. . Retrieved October 24, 2017, from: http://https://www.asha.org/public/speech/development/Pragmatics/
5. de Villiers,, J. G. , de Villiers, P. A. . "The role of language in theory of mind development" Topics in Language Disorders 34, 313-328, 2014. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1097/TLD.0000000000000037
6. Derrington, T. , Shapiro, B. , Smith, B. . (). The effectiveness of early intervention Services. . Retrieved October 24, 2017, from: http://https://www.researchgate.net/publication/238726842_The_Effectiveness_of_Early_Intervention_Services
7. Ketelaars, M. P. . The nature of pragmatic language impairment. 2010. (MD) . Retrieved from: http://https://www.researchgate.net/publication/254877977_The_nature_of_pragmatic_language_impairment
8. Landa, R. J. . "Assessment of social communication skills in preschoolers" Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities Research Reviews 11, 247-252, 2005. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1002/mrdd.20079
9. Longmore, E. A. . The effects of a social communication intervention on the production of emotion words for children with language impairment. 2016. (MA) . Retrieved from: http://https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/dd91/939b1983dabf2ec0e087eb195d19f14af49c.pdf
10. Murphy, S. M. , Faulkner, D. M. , Farley, L. R. . "The behavior of young children with social communication disorders during dyadic interaction with peers" Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology 42(2): 277-289, 2013. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/doi:10.1007/s10802-013-9772-6
11. Murphy, S. M. , Faulkner, D. M. , Reynolds, L. R. . "A randomized controlled trial of a computerised intervention for children with social communication difficulties to support peer collaboration" Research in Developmental Disabilities 35, 2821-2839, 2014. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ridd.2014.07.026
12. Peters, K. . (). Hierarchy of social/pragmatic skills as related to the development of executive function. . Retrieved July 25, 2017, from: http://https://nyspta.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/08/Conv17-305-Executive-Functions-Hierarchy-Handout-Peters.pdf
13. Owens, R. E. . Language development (8th ed.) Boston: Pearson, 2012.
14. Shulman, B. B. . Test of pragmatic skills (Rev. ed.). Arizona: Communication Skills Builders, 1986.
15. Shulman, B. B. , Capone, N. C. . Language development foundations processes, and clinical applications Boston: Jones and Barlett Publishers, 2010.
16. Smith, T. T. , Myers-Jennings, C. , Coleman, T. . "Assessment of language skills in rural preschool children." Communication Disorders Quarterly 21(2): 98-113, 2000. Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.1177/152574010002100204
17. Steiner, M. . (). The importance of pragmatic communication. . Retrieved July 25, 2017, from: http://monocacycenter.comthe-importance-ofpragmatic-communication/
18. Tomasello, M. . "The socio-pragmatic theory of word learning.Pragmatics" 10(4): 401-413, 2000. Retrieved from: http://https://journals.linguisticsociety.org/elanguage/pragmatics/article/download/302/302-588-1-PB.pdf
19. Whitehouse, A. J. O., , Watt, H. J. , Line, E. A. , Bishop, D. V. M. . "Adult psychosocial outcomes of children with specific language impairment and autism" International Journal Language Communication 44(4): 511-552, 2009. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1080/136 82820802708098

Physical Location

LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
Cebu Doctors' University - Main Library U14 Ef36 2019 Fulltext Print Format

©2022 HERDIN PLUS. All rights reserved. | Contact Us | Keep up to date