i
Report an error   
Advanced Search


Knowledge on smoking consequences and smoking cessation willingness among smokers from a selected barangay in Mandaue City: Basis for smoking cessation program.

Author

Ana Bea Carmille L. Herrera,
Enrico B. Larrazabal,
Jan Kaela P. Magallano,
Mariel Denise M. Magusara,
Tiffany Lindy B. Maningo,
Dee Jane  A. Dumagan

Related Institution

College of Nursing - Cebu Doctors' University

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis/Dissertations
Thesis Degree
BS
Specialization
Nursing
Publication Date
September 2018

Abstract

     This study determined the relationship between knowledge on smoking consequences and smoking cessation willingness among smokers in Barangay Subangdaku, Mandaue City. A descriptive-correlational design was used. There were 340 respondents involved in the study obtained through convenience sampling. The standardized tools namely Knowledge on the Effects of Smoking Questionnaire (Abolfotouh et al., 1997) and Trying to Quit Smoking Questionnaire (Lundh, 2013) were used to measure the variables. Both tools were document to have good psychometric properties. Data were collected between June to July 2018 and were processed using IBM SPSS version 22.


     There were 303 (89%) male and 37 (11%) female respondents. There were 144 (43%) young adults, 191 (56%) middle adults and 5 (1%) older adult respondents. Out of the 340 respondents, 232 (68%) have a high level of knowledge, 89 (26%) have a moderate level of knowledge, and 19 (6%) have a low level of knowledge on the consequences of smoking. There is a difference in the moderator variables specifically age and educational attainment where there are 191 (56.2%) respondents who are middle adults and 160 respondents who belong to the high school level. There was no difference in gender and frequency of smoking. There were also 231 (68%) respondents who were willing to quit smoking and 109 (32%) are not willing to quit smoking. It was seen in this research study that male middle adults in the college level have high level of knowledge and were willing to quit smoking. There was a strong positive association with a Cramer's V correlation coefficient of 0.926.


     There was a strong positive association between the knowledge on the smoking consequences and the smoking cessation willingness among smokers of Barangay Subangdaku. The results of this study were used to propose a smoking cessation program to increase the knowledge and willingness to quit smoking among the respondents and residents of the community.

References

1. Abolfotouh, M. , Aziz , M. , Badawi, I. , Alakija, W. . "Smoking intervention programme for male secondary-school students in south-western Saudi Arabia" Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 3(1): 1997. Retrieved from: http://https://www. emro.who.int/emhj-volume-3-1997/volume-3-issue-1/article11.html
2. American Cancer Society(). Health risks of secondhand smoke: What is secondhand smoke?. . Retrieved January 18, 2018, from: http://https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer-causes/tobacco-and-cancer/secondhand-smoke.html
3. American Cancer Society(). What causes non-small cell lung cancer?. . Retrieved January 18, 2018, from: http://https://www.cancer.org/cancer/non-small-cell-lung-cancer/causes- risks-prevention/what-causes.html
4. American Cancer Society.(). Is any type of smoking safe?. . Retrieved January 18, 2018, from: http://https://www.cancer.org/cancer/cancer- causes/tobacco-and-cancer/is-any-type-of-smoking-safe.html
6. Baron, J. . "Beneficial effects of nicotine and cigarette smoking: the real, the possible and the spurious" British medical bulletin 52(1): 58-73, 1996. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8746297/
7. Bellew, B. , Greenhalgh, E. , Winstanley, M. . (). Health “benefits” of smoking?. . Retrieved January 29, 2018, from: http://https://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/chapter-3-health-effects/3-28-health-benefits-of-smoking-
8. Blakely, T. , Hales, S. , Kieft, C. , Wilson, N. , Woodward, A. . Distribution of risk factors by poverty. Comparative quantification of health risks: Global and regional burden of disease attributable to selected major risk factors 2004. 1941-2128. . Retrieved from: http://https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=ACV1jEGx4AgC&pg=PA2039&lpg=PA2039&dq=lower%20educational%20attainment%20ezzati&source=bl&ots=tYDXwWv1T1&sig=ACfU3U1KMim6zjbQgPop_hX9NuC3nr6JQ&hl=en&sa=X&ved=2ahUKEwipt_3KvIPhAhUQFYgKHS09AyEQ6AEwCXoECAgQAQ&fbclid
10. Brannon, L. , Feist, J. . Health psychology: An introduction to behavior and health (7th ed.) 2010. . Retrieved from: http://https://books.google.com.ph/books/about/Health_Psychology_An_Introduction_to_Beh.html?id=NfCDR_Yl7f0C&redir_esc=y
12. Castro, D. , Bolasco, C. , Canete, M. , Dilao, D. , Duran, K. , Felicano, V. , Fontanilla, C. . A survey on the level of knowledge on the effects of smoking to health and smoking cessation efficacy among selected call center agents in Qualfon Asiatown IT Park, Cebu City: Basis for smoking cessation efficacy and readiness for a proposed smoking cessa. Cebu Doctors’ University, Mandaue City. 2011.
13. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(). Current cigarette smoking among adults in the United States. . Retrieved January 16, 2018, from: http://https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/adult_data/cig_smoking/index.htm
14. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(). Health effects of cigarette smoking. . Retrieved January 8, 2018, from: http://https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/health_effects/effects_cig_smoking/index.htm?fbclid=IwAR17oTrqSiqkbKjc0XLxmVu3nyvlprfHsEPRrgwtUBSiYz2BlX_mmWF_Pyg
15. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(). How to quit smoking.. . Retrieved January 8, 2018, from: http://https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/campaign/tips/quit-smoking/index.html
16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.(). Tobacco use by geographic region. . Retrieved January 8, 2018, from: http://https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/disparities/geographic/index.htm
17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention(). Youth and tobacco use. . Retrieved January 16, 2018, from: http://https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/youth_data /tobacco_use/index.htm
18. Cherry, K. . (). Jean piaget biography (1896-1980).. . Retrieved December 28, 2017, from: http://https://www.verywellmind.com/jean- piaget-biography-1896-1980-2795549#interest-in-intellectual- development
19. Cherry, K. . (). The 4 stages of cognitive development: Background and key concepts of Piaget’s Theory. . Retrieved December 28, 2017, from: http://https://www.verywellmind.com/piagets-stages-of- cognitive-development-2795457
20. Cherry, K, . (). What are the id, ego, and superego?: The structural model of personality. . Retrieved December 28, 2017, from: http://https://www.verywellmind.com/the-id-ego-and-superego-2795951
24. Dalton, S. E. , Johansen, C. . Stress and cancer: The critical research. Handbook of Stress Medicine and Health 2015. 45–58. . Retrieved from: http://https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=V3zLBQAAQBAJ&pg=PA47 &dq=stress+causes+smoking+behavior&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUK EwiBz6Kc1NzdAhUCerwKHdDKDm8Q6AEITDAH#v=onepage&q= stress%20causes%20smoking%20behavior&f=false
26. Department of Health(). Smoking cessation program. . Retrieved January 30, 2018, from: http://https://www.doh.gov.ph/smoking-cessation-program
27. Egbe, C. O. , Petersen, I. , Meyer-Weitz, A. . "Knowledge of the negative effects of cigarette smoking on health and well-being among Southern Nigerian youth" International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 6(3): 184-190, 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.7763/ijssh.2016.v6.641
28. Feng, G. , Jiang, Y. , Li, Q. , Yong, H. , Elton-Marshall, T. , Yang, J. , Fong, G. T. . "Individual-level factors associated with intentions to quit smoking among adult smokers in six cities of China: Findings from the ITC China survey" Tobacco Control 19(Supplement): i6-i11, 2010. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1136/tc.2010.037093
30. Global Adult Tobacco Survey. Fact Sheet Philippines(). Fact sheet Philippines 2015. . Retrieved January 10, 2017, from: http://www.wpro.who.int/philippines/publications/gats-phl2016-executive-summary.pdf
31. Global Adult Tobacco Survey.(). Philippines: Country report 2015. . Retrieved January 10, 2017, from: http://www.wpro.who.int/philippines/publications/gats-phl2016- executive-summary.pdf
33. Grassi, M. C. , Baraldo, M. , Chiamulera, C. , Culasso, F. , Raupach, T. , Ferketich, A. K. , Nencini, P. . "Knowledge about health effects of cigarette smoking and quitting among Italian university students: The importance of teaching nicotine dependence and treatment in the medical curriculum" BioMed Research International , 1-9, 2014. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1155/2014/321657
34. Greenhalgh, E. , Stillman, S. , Ford, C. . (). Theories about smoking and quitting. . Retrieved September 18, 2018, from: http://https://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/7-13-methods-services-and-products-for-quitting-co?fbclid=IwAR1Udv_iEEJi3suTy4HHpo5nX3BxnZcBkflXry1zjDVtqpeDjoxZY2PXY4
35. Greenhalgh, E. , Bayly, M. , Winstanley, M. . (). Prevalence of smoking—middle-aged and older adults. . Retrieved December 29, 2017, from: http://www.tobaccoinaustralia.org.au/chapter-1- prevalence/1-5-prevalence-of-smoking-middle-aged-and-older-ad
36. Gunay, T. , Pekel, O. , Simsek, H. , Sahan, C. , Soysal, A. , Kilinc, O. , Ergor, G. . "Smoking habits and cessation success. What differs among adults and elderly?" Saudi medical journal 35(6): 585-91, 2014. Retrieved from: http://https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24888658
37. Haber, D. . Health Promotion and Aging: Practical Applications for Health Professionals (5th ed.) 2016. . Retrieved from: http://https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=YZgPSyHULCkC&printsec= frontcover&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q=sen iors who try To quit&f=false
38. Haight, J. , Dickter, C. L. , Forestell, C. A. . "A comparison of daily and occasional smokers implicit affective responses to smoking cues" Addictive Behaviors 37(3): 234-239, 2012. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1016/j.addbeh. 2011.10.006
39. Hammond, D. , Fong, G. , McNeill, A. , Borland, R. , Cummings, K. . "Effectiveness of cigarette warning labels in informing smokers about the risks of smoking: Findings from the International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey" Tobacco Control 15(Suppl_3): iii19-iii2, 2006. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1136/tc.2005.012294
41. Haydu, M. . An analysis of tobacco cessation quit aids and quit attempts from a national study on tobacco cessation. Boston University. 2014. (MA) . Retrieved from: http://https://open.bu.edu/bitstream/handle/2144/15378/Haydu_bu_0017N_10824.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y
42. Hitchman, S. , Fong, G. . "Gender empowerment and female-to-male smoking prevalence ratios" Bulletin of the World Health Organization 89, 195-202, 2011. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.2471BLT.10.079905
44. Holm, M. , Schioler, L. , Anderson, E. , Forsberg, B. , Gislason, T. , Janson, C. , Toren, K. . "Predictors of smoking cessation: A longitudinal study in a large cohort of smokers" Respiratory Medicine 132, 164-169, 2017. Retrieved from: http://doi:/10.1016/j.rmed.2017.10.013
49. Jewell, T. . (). Smoker’s cough: Everything you need to know. . Retrieved January 10, 2018, from: http://https://www.healthline.com/health/smokers-cough
50. Johnson, C. , Tong, A.T.A. . (). Will an occasional cigarette damage your health?. . Retrieved January 20, 2018, from: http://https://www.abc.net.au/news/health/2017-12-07/will-an-occasional -cigarette-damage-your-health/9087438
51. Koning, P. , Webbink, D. , Martin, N. . "The effect of education on smoking behavior: New evidence from smoking durations of a sample of twins" Empirical Economics 48(4): 479-1497, 2010. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1007/s00181-014-0842-6
55. Lezin, N. . (). Theories & approaches: Theory of reasoned action.. . Retrieved December 28, 2017, from: http://recapp.etr.org/Recapp/Index.Cfm?fuseaction=pages.TheoriesDetail&PageID=517&fbclid=IwAR2zxYVb__Ormd1bWngrYiJnTCxdxhtRrww2UH7HowyynnkCzunbGr9q2D8
56. Liberman, D. A. , Brown, S. J. . Designing interactive video games for children’s health education. Interactive Technology and the New Paradigms for Healthcare 201-2010. . Retrieved from: http://https://books.google.com.ph/books/about/InteractiveTechnologyandtheNewParad.html?id=c5YLFrldOgUC&rediresc=y
57. Lim, K. H. , Jasvindar, K. , Cheong, S. , Ho, B. , Lim, H. L. , Teh, C. , Ambigga, D. . "Prevalence of smoking and its associated factors with smoking among elderly smokers in Malaysia: Findings from a nationwide population-based study" Tobacco Induced Diseases 14(8): 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1186/s12971-016-0073-z
58. Lin, Y. , Wu, D. , Lai, H. , Shi, Z. , Chu, N. . "Influence of knowledge and attitudes on smoking habits among young military conscripts in Taiwan" Journal of the Chinese Medical Association 73(8): 411- 418, 2010. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1016/s1726-4901(10)70089-7
61. Lundh, L. , Alinaghizadeh, H. , Törnkvist, L. , Gilljam, H. , Galanti, M. . "A new instrument to predict smoking cessation among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: an observational longitudinal study of the trying to quit smoking questionnaire" NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine 26, 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1038/npjpcrm.2016.13
62. Luh, D. , Hsu, H. , Chang, W. , Pan, L. . "Sex differences in smoking behavior trajectory patterns and related factors among older adults in Taiwan" International Journal of Gerontology 9(4): 215-219, 2015. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1016/j.ijge.2014.08.001
64. Maneja, K. , Deluna, R. . (). The effect of sin tax and anti-smoking campaign in regulating cigarette smokers in Davao City, Philippines. . Retrieved January 17, 2018, from: http://https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/68801/1/MPRA_paper_68801.pdf?fbclid=IwAR2jzOP dK_ywDp55jnPZZPtQAnVKXreyr38huFXt9rnV-5x-H-aLz2E8rpQ
65. Maryland’s Tobacco Resource Center(). Older adults. . Retrieved January 2, 2018, from: http://https://mdquit.org/special- populations/older-adults
66. Mendel, J. R. , Berg, C. J. , Windle, R. C. , Windle, M. . "Predicting young adulthood smoking among adolescent smokers and nonsmokers" American Journal of Health Behavior, 36(4): 542-554, 2012. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.5993/ajhb.36.4.11
67. Millar, W. J. . (). Reaching smokers with lower educational attainment. . Retrieved December 26, 2017, from: http://www.tobaccolabels.ca /wp/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Canada-1996-Reaching-smokers-with-lower-educational-attainment-Govt-report-Millar.pdf
68. Minh, A. , Minh, D. , Huong, H. , Giang, L. , Xuan, K. , Hai, L. , Hsia, P. . Globe Health Action 6, 2013. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.3402/gha.v6i0.18707
69. (). Module 13.4 - How to Change Behavior Patterns. . Retrieved December 10, 2017, from: http://web.mit.edu/collaborationtbox/module13/2016/Module134.pdf?fbclid=IwAR3msgxyQ1PI8KjtzOjC NTZaKtoqyD6x-DhQmKcmOC6qBk4_P4aNauEEJtE
70. Molyneux, A. , Britton, J. . Smoking cessation. Asthma and COPD: Basic mechanisms and clinical management 2002. 509-520. . Retrieved from: http://https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=iqxnXszWnSoC&pg=PA517&dq=willingness+to+stop+smoking&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwit6set99rgAhVKvo8KHaV0AAIQ6AEIJjAA#v=onepage&q=willingness%20to%20stop%20smoking&f=false
72. National Institute on Drug Abuse(). Are there gender differences in tobacco smoking?. . Retrieved December 28, 2017, from: http://https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/research-reports/tobacco- nicotine-e-cigarettes/are-there-gender-differences-in-tobacco- smoking
74. Oksuz, E. , Mutlu, E. , Malhan, S. . "Characteristics of daily and occasional smoking among youths" Public Health 121(5): 349-56, 2007. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2006.12.007
75. Paavola, M. , Vartiainen, E. , Puska, P. . "Smoking cessation between teenage years and adulthood" Health Education Research 16(1): 49-57, 2001. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1093/her/16.1.49
77. Pietrangelo, A. , Cherney, K. . (). The effects of smoking on the body. . Retrieved January 10, 2017, from: http://https://www.healthline.com/health/smoking/effects-on-body?fbclid=IwAR1uu21A8YGFU-0RJCJikUMZUwafOQu-bgW112nQOfL5m4NvnyTr7cQSGuw#1
78. (). Quit smoking before the age of 35, your life expectancy will be much the same as a non smoker. . Retrieved January 20, 2018, from: http://https://www.uniquemedical.com.au/blog.php?post=11&fbclid=IwAR 1PkMvys9QR3jvybofG772UTZNkIqHBRUY77tlyT7BL2_0verdFWX ciRqY
79. Ravara, S. B. , Castelo-Branco, M. , Aguiar, P. , Calheiros, J. M. . "Compliance and enforcement of a partial smoking ban in Lisbon taxis: An exploratory cross-sectional study" BMC Public Health 13(1): 134-144, 2013. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1186/1471-2458-13-134
80. Roeser , R. W. , Peck, S. C. . "An education in awareness: Self, motivation, and self-regulated learning in contemplative Perspective" Educational Psychologist 44(2): 119-136, 2009. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1080/00461520902832376
81. Romito, L. M. , Kouchak, F. , Soofi, A. , Fakheri, S. , Askarian, M. . "Cigarette smoking knowledge, attitudes, and practices of Iranian health professions students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran-2011" Journal of Dentistry & Oral Health 1, 103-111, 2013. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.17303/jdoh.2013.103
84. Smith, A. E. , Cavallo, D. , Mcfetridge, A. , Liss, T. , Krishnan-Sarin, S. . "Preliminary examination of tobacco withdrawal in adolescent smokers during smoking cessation treatment." Nicotine & Tobacco Research 10(7): 1253-1259, 2008. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1080/14622200802219357
85. Smith, A. , Anderson, M. . (). . Social media use in 2018.. . Retrieved from: http://www.pewinternet.org/2018/03/01/social-media-use-in-2018/
86. (). Smoking - effects on your body. . Retrieved January 15, 2018, from: http://https://www.betterhealth.vic.gov.au/health/healthyliving/smoking-effects-on-your-body
87. (). Smoking is Addictive. . Retrieved January 2, 2018, from: http://www.quitnow.gov.au/internet/quitnow/publishing.nsf/content/w arnings-b-addictive
88. Sohlberg, T. . "Smoking cessation and gender differences – results from a Swedish sample" Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs 32(3): 259-276., 2015. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1515/nsad-2015-0025
90. Stuber, J. , Galea, S. , Link, B. G. . "Smoking and the emergence of a stigmatized social status" Social Science & Medicine 67(3): 420- 430, 2008. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2008.03.010
92. Tobacco Regulation Act(). 12th Compress: 2nd Regular Session. Metro Manila. . Retrieved from: http://https://www.who.int/fctc/reporting/Philippines_annex3_packaging_a nd_advertising2003.pdf
93. (). The Path to Tobacco. . Retrieved April 18, 2018, from: http://https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/assets/factsheets/0127.pdf
94. (). The Toll of Tobacco in the United States.. . Retrieved June 18, 2018, from: http://https://www.tobaccofreekids.org/problem/tollus?fbclid=IwAR09 vrdcNpeqQ63AH8-6jBibnt86A4FOkPcOhRyoPhUw3IINY-qD- DESLg4
96. Vietnam Steering Committee on Smoking and Health & Southeast Asia Tobacco Control Alliance(). The ASEAN Tobacco Control Report. . Retrieved January 5, 2018, from: http://https://seatca.org/dmdocuments/ASEAN%20Tobacco%20Control%20Report%202012.pdf?fbclid=IwAR3ZRy_zZuex8doc5wr7Yr7RWpSMfBF4L4YxXHcRRJsBv9edk9yhnbtRO8o
97. Villanti, A. C. , Manderski, M. T. , Gundersen, D. A. , Steinberg, M. B. , Delnevo, C. D. . "Reasons to quit and barriers to quitting smoking in US young adults" Family Practice 33(2): 133-139, 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1093/fampra/cmv103
98. Waldron, I. . Changing gender roles and gender differences in health behavior. Handbook of Health Behavior Research I: Personal and Social Determinants 1997. 303– 310). . Retrieved from: http://https://books.google.com.ph/books?id=9A0Fqd8cvUQC&pg=PA30 3&dq=Changing+Gender+Roles+and+Gender+Differences+in+Hea lth+Behavior.&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwjAu_Szzo_hAhWWFYg KHbyAeAQ6AEIKjAA#v=onepage&q=Changing%20Gender%20Rol es%20and%20Gender%20Differ
101. World Health Organization(). Poverty. . Retrieved January 10, 2018, from: http://https://www.who.int/tobacco/research/economics/rationale/92poverty/en/
102. World Health Organization(). Tobacco. . Retrieved December 27, 2017, from: http://https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail- tobacco
104. Xu, X. , Chen, C. , Abdullah, A. , Sharma, M. , Liu, H. , Zhao, Y. . "Knowledge about and sources of smoking-related knowledge, and influencing factors among male urban secondary school students in Chongqing, China" Springer Plus 5(1): 1879, 2016. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1186/s40064- 016-3589-z
105. Xu, X. , Liu, L. , Sharma, M. , Zhao, Y. . "International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health" 12(2): 2135-2149, 2015. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.3390/ijerph120202135
106. Zhuang, Y. , Gamst, A. C. , Cummins, S. E. , Wolfson, T. , Zhu, S. . "Comparison of smoking cessation between education groups: Findings from 2 US national surveys over 2 decades" American Journal of Public Health 105(2): 373-379, 2015. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.2105/ajph.2014.302222

Physical Location

LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
Cebu Doctors' University - Main Library U5 K76h 2018 Fulltext Print Format

 
Loading…
©2022 HERDIN PLUS. All rights reserved. | Contact Us | Keep up to date