Report an error   
Advanced Search

Individual factors, work profile and work demands as risk factors for work related musculoskeletal disorder among selected taxi drivers: A proposed basis for musculoskeletal disorder risk prevention program.


Jade Ivarene G. bondoc,
Jedd Dedrick C. Cortes,
Genecio M. Woo

Related Institution

College of Rehabilitative Sciences – Department of Occupational Therapy - Cebu Doctors' University

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Occupational Therapy
Publication Date
March 2016


     This study aimed to determine the relationship between risk factors and level of musculoskeletal disorder risk among selected taxi drivers in Cebu City. A descriptive correlational method was used to gather information. Two (2) questionnaires were used namely the Rapid Entire Body Assessment and Work Demands Tool. REBA identifies level of musculoskeletal disorder risk while Work Demands Tool identifies individual factors, work profile and level of work demand. The taxi companies that were selected are the following: Holiday Taxi Company, Corominas Taxi and Van System taxi. A total of two hundred forty five (245) taxi drivers that rented the taxi unit for 24 hours were selected and answered the tools.

     The study found out that ninety four percent (94%) of the respondents were within age group of thirty five (35) to seventy forty four (44) years old. Sixty eight percent (68%) of the respondents was also under normal BMI category. In smoking almost half or fifty one percent (51%) were non-smokers. The work profile revealed that mean years of working experience is eight (8) and mean number of working hours is eighteen (18). The results from work demands tool showed that majority of the population which is 59% belongs to low work demand. Out of two hundred forty five (245) respondents, majority belongs to moderate level of musculoskeletal disorder risk with 51%, Upon identifying risk factors, age has a p value of 0.000 which means significant relationship with musculoskeletal disorder risk. Other risk factors were insignificant specifically BMI, smoking, years of working experience, number of working hours and level of work demands.

     The study identified risk factors for level of musculoskeletal disorders namely: individual factors, work profile and level of work demands. Based from the findings of the study, age, under individual factors, was the only one having significant relationship with level of musculoskeletal disorder risk with a p value of 0.000. After having the results, a proposed basis for risk prevention program was developed in each level. The following recommendations were made: respondents should participate and follow proposed program; taxi companies will be able to provide yearly physical examinations for their taxi drivers; family members of drivers must attend health and awareness program that to impart knowledge regarding prevention techniques and background of MSD; other taxi drivers not assessed that experiences musculoskeletal complaints must consult health professionals and have free treatment at community based rehabilitation center of occupational therapy.


1. Abledu, J. K. , Ofei, E. B. , Abledu, G. K. . "Occupational and personal determinants of musculoskeletal disorders among urban taxi drivers in ghana" International Scholarly Research Notices 2014, 1-5, 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.hindawi.com/journals/isrn/2014/517259/
2. Akinpelu, A. O. , Oyewole, O. O. , Odole, A. C. , Olukoya, R. O. . "Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Pain and Health seeking Behaviour among Occupational Drivers in Ibadan, Nigeria" African Research of Biomedical Research 14(2): 89-94, 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.bioline.org.br/pdf?md11015
3. American Occupational Therapy Association"Occupational Therapy practice framework: Domain and process (3rd ed.)" American Journal of Occupational Therapy 68, S1–S48, 2014. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.5014/ajot.2014.682006
4. Baker, F. . (). Obesity: Lifestyle or Genetics?. . Retrieved April 13, 2016, from: http://www.bodyandsoul.com.au/health/health+news/obesity+lifestyle+or+geneticsrhttp://17153
5. (). Be active. . Retrieved April 12, 2016, from: http://www.bodybreak.com/be-active/
6. Bruce, D. . (). Taxi driver survey. . Retrieved March 25, 2016, from: http://www.transport.wa.gov.au/mediaFiles/taxis/taxis_driver_survey_2013.pdf
7. Canadian Center for Occupational Health and Safety(). Work related Musculoskeletal Disorders. . Retrieved April 12, 2016, from: http://https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/diseases/rmirsi.html
8. Castaldy, R. . Therapyed’s: National Occupational Therapy Certification exam review and study guide (7th Ed.) United States of America: International Educational Resources, Ltd., 2014.
9. Chen, J. , Chang, W. , Chang, W. , Christiani, D. . "Occupational factors associated with low back pain in urban taxi drivers" Occupational Medicine 55(7): 535-540, 2005. Retrieved from: http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/20100395/occupational-factors-associated-low-back-pain-urban-taxi-drivers
10. Chen, J. , Dennerlein, J. , Shih, T. , Chen, C. , Cheng, Y. , Chang, W. , Christiani, D. . "Knee Pain And Driving Duration: A Secondary Analysis of the Drivers’ Health Study" American Journal of Public Health 94(4): 575-581, 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1448301/
11. (). The PEOP model. . Retrieved April 12, 2016, from: http://handtherapycanbefun.weebly.com/peop-model.html
12. Conrad, S. . (). The Musculoskeletal effects of smoking. . Retrieved March 25, 2016, from: http://www.orthosmoke.org/orthoSmoke.pdf
13. Discomfort. Oxford Dictionary . Retrieved from: http://www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/discomfort
14. (). Driver fatigue. . Retrieved March 25, 2016, from: http://https://saaq.gouv.qc.ca/fileadmin/documents/publications/driver-fatigue-guide.pdf
15. Dunn, W. , Brown, C. , McGuigan, A. . "The Ecology of Human Performance: A framework for considering the effect of context" American Journal of Occupational Therapy 48(7): 595-607, 1994. Retrieved from: http://ajot.aota.org/article.aspx?articleid=1873303
16. Dorsey, J. , Fick, F. , Gerg, M. , Kaskutas, V. . "Work rehabilitation" American Journal of Occupational Therapy 65, S55-S64, 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.aota.org/about-occupational therapy/professionals/wi/work-rehab.aspx
17. Harvard T.H Chan, School of Public Health(). Weight Problems Take a Hefty Toll on Body and Mind. . Retrieved April 13, 2016, from: http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/obesity-prevention-source/obesity-consequences/health-effects/
18. (). Health risk of obesity. . Retrieved April 13, 2016, from: http://www.ivyroses.com/HumanBiology/Nutrition/Health-Risks-of-Obesity.php
19. Hermenau, D.C. . Chapter 10: Seating. Ergonomics for Therapists (2nd Ed.) Boston: Butterworth-Heinemann, 1999.
20. Hiwale, D. . (). Influence of physical activity on musculoskeletal system.. . Retrieved April 11, 2016, from: http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/16255/1/Influence-of-PhysicalActivity-on-Musculoskeletal-System.html
21. Haim Erez, A.B. . Chapter 8: Psychsocial factors in work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Ergonomics for Therapists (3rd Ed) Boston: Mosby, Inc., 2008.
22. Kumar, S. (Ed.) . Biomechanics in Ergonomics. (2nd Ed.) Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2008.
23. McCullagh, J. . (). Men’s health: Driving home a healthy message. . Retrieved April 13, 2016, from: http://www.personneltoday.com/hr/mens-health-driving-home-a-healthy-message/
24. Middlesworth, M. . (2016, May 15). Re: The definition and causes of musculoskeletal disorders. . Retrieved April 12, 2016, from: http://ergo-plus.com/musculoskeletal-disorders-msd/
25. Musculoskeletal disorders in construction(). European Agency for Safety and Health at Work. . Retrieved April 12, 2016, from: http://www.osha.mddsz.gov.si/resources/files/pdf/E-fact_01_-_Musculoskeletal_disorders_in_construction.pdf
26. Cleveland Clinic(). Musculoskeletal Pain. . Retrieved April 12, 2016, from: http://https://my.clevelandclinic.org /health/diseases_conditions/hic_musculoskeletal_pain
27. National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute(). What Causes Overweight and Obesity?. . Retrieved March 25, 2016, from: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/obe/causes
28. Nunes, I.L. , Bush, P. M. . "Work-related musculoskeletal disorder assessment and prevention" Ergonomics – A system Approach , 1-31, . Retrieved from: http://cdn.intechopen.com/pdfs/35811/intech-work_related_musculoskeletal_disorders_assessment_and_prevention.pdf
29. Mayo Clinic Staff(). Obesity. . Retrieved April 13, 2016, from: http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/obesity/basics/definition/con-20014834
30. Okunribido, O. , Wynn, T. . (). Ageing and work-related musculoskeletal disorders: A review of the recent literature. . Retrieved April 13, 2016, from: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr799.pdf
31. Pendleton, H. M. , Krohn, W. . Pedretti United States: Elsevier, 2013.
32. North Dakota Workforce Safety & Insurance(). Physical demand information. . Retrieved March 25, 2016, from: http://https://www.workforcesafety.com/employers/return-to-work/preferred-worker-program/physical-demand-information
33. (). Psychology Notes HQ. Re: Havighurst’s Developmental Task Theory. . Retrieved April 11, 2016, from: http://www.psychologynoteshq.com/development-tasks/
34. Sadeghi, N. , Habibi, E. , Saijjadi, S. E. . "The Relationships Between Musculoskeletal Disorders and Anthropometric Indices in Public Vehicle Drivers" International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health 4(6): 1173-1184, 2012. Retrieved from: http://internalmedicine.imedpub.com/the-relationships-between-musculoskeletal-disorders-and-anthropometric-indices-in-public-vehicle-drivers.pdf
35. Sanders, M. (Ed) . Ergonomics and the management of Musculoskeletal Disorders. (2nd Ed) United States of America: Elsevier, 2004.
36. Schneider, E. , Irastorza, X. . (). OSH in figures: Occupational safety and health in the transport sector – An overview. . Retrieved April 10, 2016, from: http://https://osha.europa.eu/en/tools-and-publications/publications/reports/transport-sector_TERO10001ENC/
37. (). Smoking leads to poor job performance. . Retrieved March 25, 2016, from: http://www.treatment4addiction.com/blog/smoking-leads-to-poor-job-performance/
38. Department of Health website(). Smoking Cessation Program. . Retrieved March 25, 2016, from: http://www.doh.gov.ph/smoking-cessation-program
39. Styles, S. . (). The effects of a healthy lifestyle. . Retrieved March 25, 2016, from: http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/effects-healthy-lifestyle-7740.html
40. Tamrin, S. B. , Yokoyama, K. , Aziz, N. , Maeda, S. . "Association of risk factors with musculoskeletal disorders among male commercial bus drivers in Malaysia" Human Factors and Ergonomics in Manufacturing & Service Industries 24(4): 369-385, 2012. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hfm.20387/abstract
41. (). Taxi driver job description. . Retrieved April 12, 2016, from: http://www.totaljobs.com/careers-advice/job-profile/driving-jobs/taxi-driver-job-description
42. Teh, B. . (). Overweight people may not be as unhealthy as we think. . Retrieved April 11, 2016, from: http://www.regaltribune.com/overweight-people-may-not-be-as-unhealthy-as-we-think/25403/
43. Wedro, B. . (). Fatigue: Definition and facts about symptoms and causes. . Retrieved April 13, 2016, from: http://www.medicinenet.com/ fatigue/article.htm
44. (). Weight Loss and Body Mass Index. . Retrieved April 1, 2016, from: http://www.webmd.com/men/weight-loss-bmi
45. Upstate Medical University(). What is the goal of Ergonomics?. . Retrieved April 12, 2016, from: http://www.upstate.edu/hr/new_staff/work_life/ergonomics/goals.php
46. (). Why do you smoke?: Learning why you smoke can help you quit. . Retrieved March 25, 2016, from: http://https://www.marshfieldclinic.org/do-you-smoke
47. Work. Free Dictionary . Retrieved from: http://www.thefreedictionary.com/work
49. (). Work type detail sheets. . Retrieved March 25, 2016, from: http://www.acc.co.nz/for-providers/work-type-detail-sheets/WTDS001014

Physical Location

LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
Cebu Doctors' University - Main Library U6 B64 2016 Fulltext Print Format

©2022 HERDIN PLUS. All rights reserved. | Contact Us | Keep up to date