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Effects of static stretching before and after training on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) of gastro-soleus muscle complex among amateur swimmers at Cebu City Sports Center.


Dennis B. Miranda,
Joyce Therese B. Angeles,
Sitti Ayesha H. Asjali,
Odessa Belle J. Balderama,
Christine Mariel C. de Gracia,
Erwin Conrad B. Dinsay,
Lloyd Jun Y. Pinili,
Elizabeth  R. Quirog,
Noemi R. Tañeza,
Policarpo L. Valero III,
Marilou A. Acosta

Related Institution

College of Rehabilitative Sciences – Department of Physical Therapy - Cebu Doctors' University

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Physical Therapy
Publication Date
March 2004


Objective: This study aimed to determine the effects of static stretching before, before and after, after training on DOMS of gastro-soleus muscle complex among amateur swimmers at Cebu City Sports Center.

Design: This study utilized the experimental 3 group study design.

Setting: This study was conducted at the Cebu City Sports Center at Jones Avenue, Cebu City.

Subjects: Thirty-three amateur male and female swimmers. Eleven participants per group were randomly assigned to group 1 which performed static stretching before swimming, group 2, before and after swimming, and group 3 after swimming on each gastro-soleus muscle complex. At the termination of the study, 9 participants from group1, 10 participants from group 2, and all of the participants from group 3 (11) completed the duration of the study.

Procedures/Intervention: The participants were allocated randomly into the different groups in which group 1 performed static stretching before, group 2, before and after and group 3, after swimming. Monitoring of blood pressure readings, pulse rates and respiratory rates were initially taken. Then one researcher demonstrated the gastrocnemius straight knee stretch followed by soleus bent knee stretch to the participants. After the demonstration, groups 1 and 2 performed the gastro-soleus static stretching while group 3 proceeded with swimming. A stopwatch was used to monitor the duration of stretch to 30 seconds for 3 repetitions for each muscle group. Each participants was required to swim with a free-style stroke to the point of fatigue, after which the participant was asked to swim on more lap. after the training, group 2 and 3 performed the gastro-soleus static stretching. Vital signs were again taken for all the participants. The Modified Mankoski Pain Scale was given to all participants after each swimming session while one researcher explained the instructions on the proper way of filling out the sheet and the manner of rating the scale. The participants were further advised not to apply any medications or ointments if the pain sets in on the gastro-soleus area. The participants were asked to rate the pain after at least 24 hours following the swimming activity by filling out the given individual data sheet. this procedure was conducted at one (1) session per week for three (3) consecutive weeks.

Research Instrument/Measures: The Modified Mankoski Pain Scale from was used, which has a scale of 0-10 that specifically represent measurement qualities in terms of set criteria in a tabulated form, corresponding to teh level of pain a participant might feel. A master data sheet was also used to determine the documented scores.

Results: The study showed that the median post-test muscle pain score of groups 1, 2 and 3 were all zero (0). There is no significant difference between the median post-test pain scores among the three groups, the associated p-value being 0.7084 which was greater than the 0.05 level of significance. Performing the stretching either before, or before and after, or after swimming similarly resulted to absences of pain on the gastro-soleus muscle complex.

Conclusion: Based on the findings of the study, this study concludes that static stretching performed before, or before and after, or after training equally prevented the onset of DOMS.


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