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The frequency of radiographic film processing artifacts when using water types as an alternative stop bath in manual processing.


Marie Shermaine E. Alfafara,
Sharmaine May B. Cane,
Charmaine May J. Delda,
Ken Anthony C. Flores,
Niessie Jane A. Flores,
Christian Brylle J. Manatad,
Ma. Teresa D. Mata,
Shella Marie C. Oandasan,
Keissen Gem D. Talingting,
Justin James E. Yap,
Jared  B. Dela Cruz

Related Institution

College of Allied Medical Sciences – Department of Radiologic Technology - Cebu Doctors' University

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Radiologic Technology
Publication Date
October 2015


The main problem considered in this research study was to determine the frequency of radiographic film processing artifacts when using different water types as an alternative stop bath in the manual processing of films. Bautista et al. (2015) recommended the use of different water types as an alternative stop bath to the conventional acetic acid solution without specifying whether these water types would have an effect on the frequency of the said processing artifacts. Specifically, the researchers sought to determine the proportion of radiographic film processing artifacts between the experimental and control groups in terms of films with artifacts and no artifacts. Furthermore, the researchers would like to know whether there was a significant difference in the presence of radiographic film processing artifacts between the types of water and acetic acid. The experiment was conducted at the Medical Diagnostic Center (MDC) X-ray Laboratory within the College of Allied Medical Sciences of Cebu Doctors' University located at No. 1, Dr. P.V. Larrazabal Avenue, North Reclamation Area, Mandaue City, Cebu. This study used three (3) types of water namely: soft water, hard water and sea water. The films were randomly assigned to the said treatment groups in which 8 x 10 inch radiographic films totalling to six hundred thirty-six (636) were exposed and manually processed. One hundred fifty-nine (159) films were utilized for each of the said groups.

The researchers found out that in terms of the presence of radiographic film processing artifacts, soft water produced the least which amounted to nineteen (19), 15.97% of all the artifacts found. It was followed by hard water having twenty (20) films with a percentage of 16.81. Next was the acetic acid, considered to be the standard solution used as the stop bath in manual processing, garnering thirty-eight (38) films with a percentage of 31.93. Lastly, sea water produced forty-two (42) films with artifacts, 35.29%. On the contrary, the number of films without processing artifacts was: 140 (27.08%) for soft water, 139 (26.89%) for hard water, 121 (23.40%) for acetic acid and 117 (22.63%) for sea water. The frequency of processing artifacts using the different water types as an alternative stop bath were tested with the alpha level set to 0.05. The results demonstrated there was an overall significant difference among the treatment groups.

Based on the results of the study, soft water and hard water had the least frequency of radiographic film processing artifacts having twenty-one (21) each as compared to the forty-four (44) film processing artifacts found in sea water. Thirty-eight (38) film processing artifacts were found in acetic acid, the standard stop bath in manual processing. Even though the other water types used showed a presence of an artifact, they could be still used a a substitute because they could create films with no artifacts. Since the results clearly signified that soft water and hard water equally produced the least frequency of radiographic film processing artifacts and showed a large margin from the control, the researchers would recommend the further use of soft water and hard water as an alternative stop bath in manual processing.


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LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
Cebu Doctors' University - Main Library U11 F89 2015 Fulltext Print Format

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