Report an error   
Advanced Search

The effect of orange peel on the tooth shade of the maxillary anterior teeth.


Lauriane Jessa  S. Baja ,
Veronika Jeriance  C. Demonteverde,
Ma. Faye  C. Denoyo,
Sheendie Dawn  C. Gallemit ,
Lyle  L. Ignacio,
Sushmita Marie  M. Lo,
Melissa  D. Manglapus,
Susanith  O. Mendoza ,
Alner Vincent Zakkary  G. Suico,
Timothy Kyle  R. Yu ,
Jocera L. Managbanag

Related Institution

College of Dentistry - Cebu Doctors' University

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Publication Date
March 2018


  This study determined the bleaching effect of Citrus reticulata (orange peel) on the natural tooth shade of maxillary anterior teeth of eight (8) students based on the sample size formula of paired-samplecomparison of means designed to detect a difference of 50% that qualified in the inclusion criteria. This study utilized a single blind pre-test and post-test design in evaluating the bleaching effects of using orange peel. This study was conducted in the Periodontics-Endodontics Department and Pedodontics Department of Cebu Doctors' University. A VITA Classical Tooth Shade Guide was used to determine the shades of the teeth before and after using orange peeland Colgate Optic White Toothpaste.


   The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test revealed that both the experimental group (orange peel) and control group (Colgate Optic White Toothpaste) had a significant difference in tooth shades between pre and post-treatment. With a .05 level of significance using orange peel, the post-treatment (Median = 4.0) tooth shade scores of tooth numbers 11 and 12 were higher compared with their pre-treatment (Median = 3.0) by 1.00 mm, z = -2.828 for tooth number 11 and z = -2.646 for tooth number 12, p < .05. Likewise, the post-treatment (Median = 3.0) tooth shade score of tooth number 13 was significantly higher compared with its pre-treatment (Median = 2.0) by 1.00 mm, z = 2.449, p < .05. Similarly, with a .05 level of significance using Colgate Optic White Toothpaste, the post-treatment (Median = 4.0) tooth shade score of tooth numbers 21 and 22 were significantly higher compared with their pre-treatment (Median = 3.0) by 1.00 mm, z = -2.828, p < .05. Likewise, the post-treatment (Median = 3.0) tooth shade of tooth number 23 was significantly higher compared with its pre-treatment (Median = 2.0) by 1.00 mm, z = -2.646, p < .05. The tooth shades of the group treated with orange peel changed from dark yellow (A3.5) to light yellow (A3) and very light yellow (A2) while majority of those with a pre-treatment tooth shade of light yellow (A3) changed to very light yellow (A2). For the group treated with Colgate Optic White Toothpaste, majority of those in a tooth shade of dark yellow (A3.5) changed to light yellow (A3) while majority of those with a pre-treatment tooth shade of light yellow (A3) changed to very light yellow (A2). The Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test revealed that both the experimental group (orange peel) and control group (Colgate Optic White Toothpaste) had a significant difference in tooth shades between pre-treatment and post-treatment.

         In conclusion, the orange peel had effectively whitened the anterior teeth of selected students of Cebu Doctors' University to at least a shade lighter from its pre-treatment tooth shade similarly to Colgate Optic White. The researchers would recommend the following: For the patients, they will be provided with a cost-effective alternative for bleaching teeth such as orange peel. For the dental practitioners, they can recommend orange peel to the public as an alternative option for whitening teeth. For the dental instructors, they can impart knowledge awareness to their students that orange peel is one of the natural alternative options that can whiten teeth. For the farmers, their livelihood may benefit when the demand for orange peel increases. For the future researchers, they can use the results of this study as reference in conducting future studies. The future researchers can innovate the current study by extending days of application to fifteen to thirty days instead of 14 days. The future researchers can also further their studies into determining the length of the effect of orange peelon the tooth shade before it darkens again. The researchers recommend that orange peel extract be added as a main ingredient to create whitening toothpaste. 


1. Academy of General D, . (2011, November 30). What iscosmetic dentistry?. . Retrieved from: http://www.knowyourteeth.com/infobites/abc/article/?abc=C&iid=300&aid=1196
2. Acul-Acul, N. A. , Dapar, A. C. , Gelaga, C. M. , Malilay , A. N. C. , Moreno, K. K. L. , Paclipan, C. S. IV , Villagonzalo, D. R. . Thebleaching effect of Averrhoa bilimbi (Iba) on the natural tooth shade ofmaxillary anterior teeth: A randomized controlled trial. Mandaue City. 2017. Cebu Doctors’ University,
3. Aframian, D.J. , Davidowitz, T. , Benoliel, R. . "The distribution of oral mucosalpH values in healthy saliva secretors. OralDiseases" 12(4): 420-423, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1111/j/1601-0825.2005.01217.x
4. Alqahtani, M. Q., . "Tooth-bleachingprocedures and their controversial effects" A literature review. The Saudi Dental Journal 26(2): 33-46, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1016/J.sdentj.2014.02.002
5. American Dental Asso, . (2016, November 30). Statementon the safety and effectiveness of tooth whitening products. . Retrieved from: http://www.ada.org/en/about-the-ada/ada-positions-policies-and-statements/tooth-whitening-safety-and-effectiveness
6. .(2015). Re: Balanci, . (2014, November 30). Re: Balancing act! pH balance of skin [Web log message]. . Retrieved from: https://www.skincarerx.com/blog/concerns/balancing-act-ph-balance-skin/
7. Baker Street Dental , . (2013, November 30). Toothshade guide. . Retrieved from: https://www.bakerstreetdental.com/tooth-shade-guide.htm
8. Boushell, L. W., , Sturdevant, J. R. , . Clinical significance of dental anatomy, histology,physiology, and occlusion. In H. O. Heymann, E. J. Swift, Jr., & A. V.Ritter (Eds.). Sturdevant’s art andscience of operative dentistry (6th ed. Singapore: Elsevier, 2012. 2.
9. Chandler, S. . (2016, November 30). Whatare the different types of human teeth?. . Retrieved from: http://www.livestrong.com/article/102855-different-types-human-teeth/
10. Christopoulos, A. . (2014, November 30). Mouth anatomy. . Retrieved from: http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1899122-overview#a1
11. Ciriminna, R. , Meneguzzo, F. , Delisi, R. , Pagliaro, M. . "Citric acid: Emergingapplications of key biotechnology industrial product" Chemistry Central Journal 11(22): . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1186/s13065-017-0251-y
12. (2016, November 30). Colgate Optic WhiteToothpaste. . Retrieved from: https://www.dentist.net/products/colgate-optic-white-toothpaste
13. Colgate-PalmoliveCom, . (2009, November 30). Why should I whiten my teeth? . . Retrieved from: https://www.colgate.com/en-in/oral-health/cosmetic-dentistry/teeth-whitening/why-should-i-whiten-my-teeth
14. Colgate-Palmolive Co, . (2016, November 30). Our policy oningredient safety: Earning your confidence for generations, every day. . Retrieved from: https://www.colgatepalmolive.com/en/us/corp/core-values/our-policies/ingredient-safety
15. Courteau, J. . (2011, November 30). Citrus reticulata: Tangerine. . Retrieved from: http://eol.org/pages/582204/details
16. Dahl, J. E. , Pallesen, U. . "Tooth bleaching: A critical review of the biologicalaspects" Critical Reviews in Oral Biology& Medicine 14(4): 292-304, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1177/154411130301400406
17. DiMatteo, A. . (). Cosmetic dentistry costs & FAQs. . Retrieved from: https://www.yourdentistryguide.com/faq/
18. DiMatteo, A. . (). Cosmetic dentistry: Treatments and trends. . Retrieved from: https://www.yourdentistryguide.com/cosmetic/
19. Elmido , K. P. F. C., III , Kim, T. S. , Seyed, S. S. M. , Socito, K. B. , Tan, K. R. U. , Torres , M. V. . The effect of the inner portion ofLatundan banana peelings on the tooth shade of maxillary anterior teeth amongselected first year Dentistry proper students of Cebu Doctors’ University A.Y.2009-2010 . Mandaue City. 2011. CebuDoctors’ University,
20. Green Facts, . (2016, November 30). Tooth whiteners & oral hygiene products containing hydrogenperoxide. . Retrieved from: http://copublications.greenfacts.org/copublications/en/tooth-whiteners/l-2/3-home-tooth-whitening-dentist.htm#0
21. Ho, A. . (2016, November 30). Re: Teeth whitening vs.Bleaching [Web log message]. . Retrieved from: http://www.thirdstreetdental-drho.com/teeth-whitening-vs-bleaching/
22. Joiner, A. . "The bleaching of teeth: Areview of the literature" Journal ofDentistry 34(7): 412-419, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1016/j.jdent.2006.02.002
23. Kareem, S. O. , Rahman, R. A. . "Utilization of banana peels for citric acid production by Aspergillus niger" Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 4(4): 384-387, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.5251/abjna.2013.4.4.384.387
24. Kawamoto, K. , Tsujimoto, Y. . "Effects ofthe hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide on tooth bleaching" Journal of Endodontics 30(1): 45-50, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1097/00004770-200401000-00010
25. Main Street Children, . (2016, November 30). Strawberries and other natural oral care solutions. . Retrieved from: http://www.mainstreetsmiles.com/strawberries-and-other-natural-oral-care-solutions/
26. Mitchell, J. . (2016, November 30). Three types of teeth stains and how to remove them. . Retrieved from: http://www.colgate.com/en/us/oc/oral-health/cosmetic-dentistry/teeth-whitening/article/teeth-stain-removal-types-0116
27. OptimaDental Care, . (2016, November 30). Teeth not perfectly white: Dont feel embarrassed, itsnormal. . Retrieved from: http://www.dentist-gladstone.com.au/teeth-not-perfectly-white-dont-feel-embarrassed-its-normal/93/
28. Pratiwi, F. , Tinata, J. K. , Prakasa, A. W. , Istiqomah, E. , Isworo, S. , Hartini, . "Citric acid compounds oftangerines peel extract (Citrusreticulata) as potential materials teeth whitening" Journal of Physics: Conference Series 824(1): . Retrieved from: http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/824/1/012071/meta
29. Rathod, J. . (2016, November 30). Treat skin allergies thenatural way. . Retrieved from: https://www.sepalika.com/allergies/treat-skin-allergies-naturally/
30. Reader’s Digest Edit, . (2016, November 30). 20surprising uses for bananas (besides eating them). . Retrieved from: https://www.google.com.ph/amp/s/www.rd.com/home/improvement/banana-uses/amp/ 
31. (). Regular whitening toothpaste whitens the surface of.. . Retrieved from: https://www.coursehero.com/file/p5lm37t/Regular-whitening-toothpaste-whitens-the-surface-of-our-enamel-with-the/
32. Sharma, N. , Galustians, J. , Qaquish, J. , Rustogi, K. N. , Petrone, M. E. , Chaknis, P. , Proskin, H. M. . "A six-week clinical efficacy study of three commercially availabledentifrices for the removal of extrinsic tooth stain" Journal of Clinical Dentistry (10): . Retrieved from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/10825857
33. Vera, K. . (). Are oranges acidic oralkaline?. . Retrieved from: http://healthyeating.sfgate.com/oranges-acidic-alkaline-11779.html
34. VITA Zahnfabrik., . (). VITA classical A1-D4® shade guide [Online image]. . Retrieved from: https://www.vita-zahnfabrik.com/en/VITA-classical-A1-D4-shade-guide-39699,27568.html
35. Weil, A. . (2016, November 30). Re: Is eatingthe orange pith healthy? [Web log message]. . Retrieved from: https://www.drweil.com/diet-nutrition/food-safety/is-eating-the-orange-pith-healthy/
36. Zantner, C. , Beheim-Schwarzbach, N. , Neumann, K. , Kielbassa, A. M. . "Surface microhardness of enamel afterdifferent home bleaching procedures" DentalMaterials 23(2): 243-250, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2006.06.044

Physical Location

LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
Cebu Doctors' University - Main Library U3 Ef36ba 2018 Fulltext Print Format

©2022 HERDIN PLUS. All rights reserved. | Contact Us | Keep up to date