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Comparative analysis of Indian tree (Polyalthia longifolia) stomatal index as an indicator of the effects of particulate matter in air.


Jadie Ann V. Alkuino,
Ruby B. Arenilla,
Neil Elyssa C. Mesario,
Joyce Madelle S. Ocso,
Lindale Jay M. Tabasa,
Cornelia May R. Tesaluna,
Desiderio C. Asane

Related Institution

College of Arts and Sciences - Biology Department - Cebu Doctors' University

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Publication Date
November 2017


The study aimed to compare the stomatal index of Indian Tree located along busy and non-busy road. It utilized descriptive comparative analysis to determine the significant difference in stomatal index in the leaves exposed to two different locations. Collection of 268 and 126 dark green leaves that were attached to the stem and branches of Indian Tree were taken simultaneously on the same day and time in the busy road of Osmeña Boulevard, Cebu and the non-busy road of D' Family Park, Talamban, respectively. Leaves were collected during mid-day between 11:00 am to 2:00 pm because stomata are open during the day and close during the night. Plants need sunlight to perform photosynthesis. One leaf was collected from the exposed bottom portion of each tree. OMG brand colorless nail varnish was applied to the leaves and created a leaf impression. It was pulled using a clear tape and placed on the glass slide. Photos of microscopic fields were taken and uploaded on the computer. The number of open and closed stomata and epidermal cells were counted. Stomatal index was calculated using the formula of Salisbury (1927).

Results of the study in terms of open stomata showed that the nonbusy road had a higher median and IQR value of 220.50 and 63.00 respectively, than the value of busy road with 66.00 and 12.00. Closed stomata from the non-busy road showed a lower value of 56.50 (31.00) compared to the busy road, which had 214.00 (10.00). Epidermal cell  values from the non-busy road showed a lower value of 892.50 (123.00) compared to the busy road, which had 1007.50 (55.00). Most significantly, the stomatal index of leaves from the non-busy road showed a higher value of 23.68 (3.17) compared to the busy road, which had 21.74 (1.92). Furthermore, the Mann-Whitney U test revealed a significant difference between the non-busy and busy road in terms of the number of open and closed stomata and stomatal index, (p<.001).

The study revealed that plants exposed in the non-busy road had greater number of open stomata and stomatal index but lesser number of closed stomata and epidermal cells compared in the busy road. There was almost a certainly true difference in the number of open and closed stomata and stomatal index between the two locations. The researchers would like to recommend to survey other trees such as Mahogany (Swietenia macrophyll) and Molave (Vitex parviflora), and monitor other busy and non-busy roads in Cebu City. Include the stomatal size and density as well as the epidermal size and density. Apply stain to clearly see and count cells, and further compare the significant difference in the number of open and closed stomata and stomatal index.


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