Report an error   
Advanced Search

Child rearing practices and parental stress as predictors for job performance among the teaching and non-teaching staff of Cebu Doctors' University.


Patrice Margrete  S. Felicio,
Georgia Angela  M. Lim,
Nicoli Ann  U. Prado,
Stella Marie  A. Sanchez,
Gabrielle Roxanne B. Cabunoc

Related Institution

College of Rehabilitative Sciences - Department of Occupational Therapy - Cebu Doctors' University

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Occupational Therapy
Publication Date
September 2017


     This study aims to determine the relationship between child rearing practices and parental stress and how it can predict job performance among the teaching and non-teaching staff of Cebu Doctors' University. This type of Descriptive Correlational Research was conducted to the (34) teaching staff and (75) non- teaching staff of Cebu Doctors' University. The study utilized three (3) instruments namely Modified Child Rearing Practices, Parental Stress Scale, and Modified Job Performance Scale.

     Based on the findings in terms of child rearing practices, two (2) styles were seen most predominant. 45% of the respondents are authoritative and 38.5% are neglectful, 9.2% are permissive and 7.5% are authoritarian. In terms on the level of parental stress, results showed that 65.1% of the respondents have low level of parental stress while 34.9% have high levels. For job performance, majority (86.2%) perceived themselves as having moderate job performance while only minority of the population scored high. In respect to the dimensions of the job performance, 96.3% of the population have a high level of task performance and 56% have a high level of contextual performance. To determine whether child rearing practices and parental stress are predictors of job performance, multiple regression was used, where results showed that only 20% of the variation of the items of the perceived job performance could be explained by the child rearing practices and parental stress. The Pearson Chi-square test was instead used to determine whether child rearing practices and job performance has a relationship and the results showed x2(1)=5.661, p=0.017 indicating a positive relationship between authoritative parenting style and perceived job performance. The same association test was used to interpret the relationship of the level of parental stress and perceived job performance where x2(1) =9.309, p=0.002 shows that there is also a positive association between the two.

     Based on the findings presented, the researchers have concluded that child rearing practices and parental stress has a significant weak positive influence of 20% of the variation in the perceived job performance. Researchers recommend parents to establish healthier habits of positive communication and routines, sustain habituation that help control their stress levels and coping strategies, and made mindful in helping colleagues in managing workload and focus their time in managing tasks on hand to enhance overall quality of life.


1. American Occupationa, . "Occupational therapy practice framework: Domain and process" American Journal of Occupational Therapy 68(1): 1–48, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.5014/ajot.2014.682006
2. (2016, November 30). American Psychological Association (APA). . Retrieved from: http://www.apa.org/news/press/releases/stress/2011/impact.aspx
3. Bashir, U. , Ramay, M.S. . (2009, November 30). Impact of stress on employees’ job performance: A study on banking sector of Pakistan. . Retrieved from: http://www.ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/ijms/article/view/4604
4. Berry, J. O., Jones, W. H.. "The parental stress scale: Initial psychometric evidence" Journal of Social and Personal Relationships 12(3): 463-472, . Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.1177/0265407595123009
5. Bilal, H. , Shah, B. , Yasir, M. , Shah, B. , Yasir, , M. , Mateen, A. . "Employee Engagement and Contextual Performance of Teaching Faculty of Private Universities." Journal of Managerial Sciences IX(1): 82, . Retrieved from: http://www.qurtuba.edu.pk/jms/default_files/JMS/9_1/JMS_January_June2015_81-88.pdf
6. Bott, J. P. , Svyantek, D. J. , Goodman , S. A. , Bernal , D. S. . "Expanding the performance domain: who says nice guys finish last?" The International76Journal of Organizational Analysis 11(2): 137-152, . Retrieved from: http://https://www.emeraldinsight.com/doi/pdfplus/10.1108/eb028967
7. Brown, L. M. . "The relationship between motherhood and professional advancement: Perceptions versus reality" Employee Relations 32(5): 470-494, . Retrieved from: http://https://www.researchgate.net/publication/243460512_The_relationship_between_motherhood_and_professional_advancement_Perceptions_versus_reality
8. Carlson, J. . (). The basic needs of every Child. . Retrieved from: http://www.healthguidance.org/entry/14969/1/The-Basic-Needs-of-Every- Child.html
9. Chamundeswari, S. . "Job satisfaction and performance of school teachers" International Journal of Academic Research in Business and Social Sciences 3(5): 420, . Retrieved from: http://www.hrmars.com/admin/pics/1859.pdf
10. Chiang, F. F. , Birtch, T. A. , Kwan, H. K. . "The moderating roles of job control and work- life balance practices on employee stress in the hotel and catering industry" International Journal of Hospitality Management 29(1): 25-32, . Retrieved from: http://https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0278431909000632
11. Child-rearing, . (). In Merriam Webster. . Retrieved from: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/child-rearing
12. Cronin, S. , Becher, E. , Christians, K. , Schmiesing, D. , Debb, S. . (2014, November 30). Parents and stress: Understanding experiences, context, and responses. . Retrieved from: https://conservancy.umn.edu/bitstream/handle/11299/172384/parental-stress- 2015.pdf? sequence=1&isAllowed=y
13. Doan, R. M. , Popkin, B. M. . "Women's work and infant care in the Philippines" Social science & medicine 36(3): 297-304, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1016/0277-9536(93)90013-T
14. Ferris, D. L. , Lian, H. , Brown, D. J. , Pang, F. X. , Keeping, L. M. . "Self‐esteem and job performance: the moderating role of self‐esteem contingencies" Personnel Psychology 63(3): 561-593, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6570.2010. 01181.x
15. Furlong, M. , McGilloway, Sinead . (2012, November 30). Challenges and future directions in the evaluation of parenting programs. In P. Barberis& S. Petrakis (Eds.), Parenting: Challenges, practices, and cultural influences (pp. 177-188). . Retrieved from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/284282747_Challenges_and_future_directions_in_the_evaluation_of_parenting_programmes
16. George, S. , Rajan, A. . "Factors of Child-rearing Practices" A Qualitative Analysis. Journal of Psychology 3(2): 99-105, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1080/09764224.2012.11885483
17. Gilongos, N. N., , Guarin, M. J. G., . (2012, November 30). Parenting styles, children’s perceived relationship with parents, and their social adjustment. In International Conference on Social Science Research, Penang, Malaysia. . Retrieved from: https://worldconferences.net/proceedings/icssr2013/toc/386%20-%20Norivic%20-%20PARENTING%20STYLES,%20CHILDREN_S%20PERCEIVED%20RELATIONSHIP%20WITH%20PARENTS,%20AND%20THEIR%20SOCIAL%20ADJUSTMENT_done.pdf
18. Gota, A. . (2012, November 30). Effects of parenting styles, academic self-efficacy, and achievement motivation on the academic achievement of university students in Ethiopia. . Retrieved from: http://ro.ecu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1461&context=theses
19. Greenhaus, J. H. , Powell, G. N. . "When work and family are allies: A theory of work- family enrichment" Academy of management review 31(1): 72-92, . Retrieved from: http://https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jeffrey_Greenhaus/publication/228079485_ When_work_and_family_are_allies_A_theory_of_work- family_enrichment/links/54d140a40cf28959aa7ac18a/When-work-and-family- are-allies-A-theory-of-work-family-enrichment.pdf
20. Gringlas, M. , Weinraub, M. . "The more things change... single parenting revisited" Journal of Family Issues 16(1): 29-52, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1177/019251395016001003
21. Hadzic, R. , Magee, C. A. , Robinson, L. . "Parental employment and child behaviors: Do parenting practices underlie these relationships?" International journal of behavioral development 37(4): 332-339, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1177/0165025413477274
22. Hibel, L. C. , Mercado, E. , Trumbell, J. M. . "Parenting stressors and morning cortisol in a sample of working mothers" Journal of Family Psychology 26(5): 738-746, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1037/a0029340
23. Holliday, M. . (2013, November 30). Authoritative parenting and outcomes of positive discipline parent training: Parenting style and perceived efficacy (Doctoral dissertation). . Retrieved from: https://pqdtopen.proquest.com/doc/1648390208.html?FMT=AI
24. Hughes, E. . (2012, November 30). Types of Parenting Styles and How to Identify Yours. . Retrieved from: https://my.vanderbilt.edu/developmentalpsychologyblog/2013/12/types-of- parenting-styles-and-how-to-identify-yours/
25. Kearns, K. . (2015, November 30). Authoritative Parenting and Transformational Leadership: An Example of Family-to-Work Enrichment (Master’s Thesis). . Retrieved from: https://scholar.utc.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1596&context=theses
26. Klassen, R. , Usher, E. , Bong, M. . "Teachers’ collective efficacy, job satisfaction, and job stress in cross-cultural context" The Journal of80Experimental Education (78): 464–486, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1080/00220970903292975
27. Kutney-Lee, A. , McHugh, M. D. , Sloane, D. M. , Cimiotti, J. P. , Flynn, L. , Neff, D. F. , Aiken, L. H. . "Nursing: A key to patient satisfaction" Health affairs 28(4): w669-w677, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.28.4. w669.
28. Lee, E. H. . "Review of the psychometric evidence of the perceived stress scale" Asian Nursing Research 6(4): 121-127, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1016/j.anr.2012.08.004
29. Lezin, N. , Rolleri, L. A. , Bean, S. , Taylor, J. . (2003, November 30). Parent-child connectedness: Implications for research, interventions, and positive impacts on adolescent health. . Retrieved from: http://recapp.etr.org/recapp/documents/research/litreview.pdf
30. McNall, L. A., , Nicklin, J. M., , Masuda, A. D., . "A meta-analytic review of the consequences associated with work–family enrichment" Journal of Business and Psychology 25(3): 381-396, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1080/00223980903356073
31. Murphy, A. . (2013, November 30). How to raise a moral child. . Retrieved from: https://my.vanderbilt.edu/developmentalpsychologyblog/
32. Neighmond, P. . (2010, November 30). Working moms multitask, and stress, more than dads. . Retrieved from: https://www.npr.org/sections/health-81shots/2011/12/02/143045721/among-working-parents-moms-multitask-and-stress-more-than-dads
33. Nonteaching staff, . (2017, November 30). In Collins Dictionary. . Retrieved from: https://www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/nonteaching-staff
34. Olson, C. A. . "Do workers accept lower wages in exchange for health benefits?" Journal of Labor Economics 20(S2): S91-S114, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1086/338675
35. (2017, November 30). Organization of Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). . Retrieved from: https://data.oecd.org/eduresource/teaching-staff.htm
36. Padma, S. , Reddy, S. . "Role of family support in balancing personal and work life of women employees" International Journal of Computational Engineering & Management 16(3): 93-97, . Retrieved from: http://www.ijcem.org/papers052013/ijcem_052013_15.pdf
37. Park, J. H. , Tansuhaj, P. S. , Kolbe, R. H. . (1990, November 30). The role of love, affection, and intimacy in family decision research. ACR North American Advances. . Retrieved from: http://www.acrwebsite.org/search/view-conference-proceedings.aspx?Id=7231
38. Patel, C. J. , Govender, V. , Paruk, Z. , Ramgoon, S. . "Working mothers: Family-work conflict, job performance and family/work variables" Journal of Industrial Psychology 32(2): 39-45, . Retrieved from: http://https://sajip.co.za/index.php/sajip/article/viewFile/238/235
39. Pawar, P. . (2016, November 30). Model of Human Occupation (MOHO). . Retrieved from: https://occupationaltherapyot.com/model-of-human-occupation-moho-frame-of-reference/
40. Ramafikeng, M. , Galvaan, R. , Niekerk, L.V. . (2010, November 30). Occupation focused conceptual frameworks. . Retrieved from: https://vula.uct.ac.za/access/content/group/9c29ba04-b1ee-49b9-8c85-9a468b556ce2/Framework_2/lecture3.htm
41. Resilience, . (). In Oxford dictionary. . Retrieved from: https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/resilience
42. Rickel, A. U. , Biasatti, L. L. . "Modification of the block child rearing practices report" Journal of Clinical Psychology 38(1): 129-134, . Retrieved from: http://doi.org/10.1002/1097-4679(198201)38:1%3C129::AID-JCLP2270380120%3E3.0.CO;2-3
43. Schultz, S. , Schkade, J. . "Occupational adaptation: Toward a holistic approach for Contemporary practice" The American Journal of Occupational Therapy 46(10): 917-925, . Retrieved from: http://doi:10.5014/ajot.46.10.917
45. Sheikh, S. , Janoff-Bulman, R. . "Paradoxical consequences of prohibitions" Journal of personality and social psychology 105(2): 301, . Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1037/a0032278.
46. Shernoff, E. S. , Mehta, T. G. , Atkins, M. S. , Torf, R. , Spencer, J. . "A qualitative study of the sources and impact of stress among urban teachers. School mental health" 3(2): 59-69, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1007/s12310-011-9051-z
47. Sonnentag, S. , Volmer, J. , Spychala, A. . "Job performance micro approaches" SAGE Journal 1, 427-447, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.4135/9781849200448.n24
48. Sorenson, S., . "How employee engagement drives growth" Gallup business journal 1, 1-4, . Retrieved from: http://www.dyckerhoff-bdu.de/images/Downloads/Dyckerhoff_Gallup_Studie_How%20_Employee_Engagement_Drives_Growth.pdf
50. Tyler, S. , Allison, K. , Winsler, A. . "Child neglect: Developmental consequences, intervention, and policy implications" In Child and Youth Care Forum 1, 1-20, . Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1007/s10566-005-9000-9
51. Usop, A. M. , Kadtong, M. L. , Usop, D. A. S. O. . "The Significant relationship between work performance and Job Satisfaction in Philippines" International Journal of Human Resource 3(2): 9-16, . Retrieved from: http://tjprc.org/publishpapers/2-34-1364823381-2THE%20SIGNIFICANT%20-%20full.pdf
52. (2017, November 30). What are the effects of effects of uninvolved parenting on kids?. . Retrieved from: https://www.curejoy.com/content/effects-of-uninvolved-parenting-on-kids/
53. (2015, November 30). What is the kawa model?. . Retrieved from: http://www.kawamodel.com/v1/index.php/about/
54. Yusof, R.B. , Ali, A.M. , Khan, A. . "Assessing reliability and validity of job performance scale among university teachers" Journal of Basic and Applied Scientific Research 4(1): 35-41, . Retrieved from: http://https://www.textroad.com/pdf/JBASR/J.%20Basic.%20Appl.%20Sci.%20Res.http://%204(1)35-41http://%202014.pdf

Physical Location

LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
Cebu Doctors' University - Main Library U6 C436 2017 Fulltext Print Format

©2022 HERDIN PLUS. All rights reserved. | Contact Us | Keep up to date