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Demographic factors as predictors of the level of working task postural risk on luggage transport activities among porters of Cebu.


Duke Dolton Y. Aspilla,
Samierose P. Balisi,
Joseph Daniel M. Lanuza,
Jessie Lynn S. Lasaleta,
Marc Conrad T. Tentativa,
Jorela Joelle D. Lu

Related Institution

College of Rehabilitative Sciences – Department of Physical Therapy - Cebu Doctors' University

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Physical Therapy
Publication Date
April 2018


   Manual handling jobs are occupations requiring a high musculoskeletal demand in order to work efficiently. This increases the risk towards acquiring work related musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) due to the high physical demands and factors a certain occupation requires. Porters are known to be under these circumstances which put them to be more at risk towards work related musculoskeletal disorders. This study aims to determine the significant influence of the different demographic factors which includes the respondent age, body mass index (BMI) and years of experience towards the risk for acquiring work-related musculoskeletal disorders among the porters of Cebu in terms of the working task lifting, carrying and unloading. The investigators utilized descriptive predictive design, where in the respondents demographic factors and postural risk level were gathered through questionnaire and observations respectively. The Rapid Entire Body Assessment tool by Sue Hignett was used to assess the working task performed by each porter.

   The data gathered were used to find the demographic factors that can predict the postural risk level in the different working task with the use of multiple regression analysis. The results showed that out of 124 male porters 18.5% are young adults, 40.3% middle adults and 41.1% older adults. In terms of BMI 58.1% normal, 37.1% overweight and 4.0% underweight. For the years of experience 55.6% had more than 10 years of experience, 24.2% less than 5 years of experience and 20.2% 5 to 10 years of experience. During lifting majority of the porters (46%) have high level of postural risk. During carrying and unloading most of the population have medium level of postural risk with values of 45.2% and 39.5% respectively. The results showed the influence of age, BMI and years of experience to the different working tasks: In lifting no significant p-value was found among the three demographic factors showing only 1.2 % in the variation as explained in the model. Of the following demographic factors age, BMI and years of experience, results showed that BMI was a significant predictor to the postural risk for acquiring MSDs during carrying (R2=0.36) and unloading (R2=0.83).

   BMI is a significant predictor of postural risk for acquiring MSDs during the working tasks carrying and unloading. The study was able to come up with the demographic factor showing a prediction towards postural risk for acquiring MSDs. The porters can be educated towards proper working techniques, good health and the use of other equipment to assist them during carrying excessively heavy luggage's in Cebu ports one (1) and three (3). Further studies on other possible risk factors can also be done such as ergonomics, lifestyle and on the specific working tasks as predictors of postural risk of porters for developing MSDs.


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