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The effects of chlorine, detergent and the mixture of both in mortality of toad embryo (Bufo marinus).


James T. Dayagbil II,
Paul Karlo M. Dosdos,
Galileo B. Roma III,
Redem C. Deligero

Related Institution

College od Arts and Sciences- Biology - Cebu Doctors' University

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Publication Date
October 2016


This study was aimed to determine the effects of chlorine, detergent and the mixture of both in the mortality of frog tadpole (Rana vittigera) from August 10, 2016 to September 25, 2016. This study is an experimental type using a completely randomized design (CRD) done in a controlled laboratory setting using 12x6x8.5 inch aquariums containing 4L of spring water and 1.4, 2.8, 4.2 and 5.6 g of powdered chlorine, detergent and the mixture of both, diluted with 200 mL of spring water with one control. Five tadpoles were placed in each setup for a total of 65 tadpoles. These tadpoles were taken from Buhisan Dam, Cebu City. Throughout the span of the experiment, deaths were recorded for mortality, and photos were taken of the dead tadpoles using Canon EOS Rebel T1i for documentation purposes of the experiment. Frequency and percentage distribution was used to summarize for the percentage mortality of the frog tadpole in the control group and the tadpoles subjected to the different concentrations of chlorine, detergent and the mixture of both.

There were no deaths in the control group (0%), which meant that all the tadpoles survived, and all the experimental groups of different concentrations of chlorine, detergent and the mixture of both died (100%) at Day 2. It showed that the tadpoles were placed in great stress by the experimental groups unlike in the control group because the tadpoles could not thrive in an environment with toxic foreign compounds. The tadpoles could not adapt to the foreign environment contaminated with the compounds resulting in death.

Based on the findings, it was concluded that the different mixtures of chlorine, detergent and the mixture of both were very toxic and killed amphibians, especially tadpoles. They caused great stress and are hypertonic which resulted in immediate tadpole death. We recommend to the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) and to the municipal and city governments to be vigilant and work hand in hand to enact laws which will make sure that factories will not carelessly dump waste into bodies of water and make awareness programs to educate people the effects of dumping waste water laden with detergent to the ecosystem.


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Cebu Doctors U1 D33 2016 Fulltext Print Format

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