Mark Harvey P. Beligaño,
Mary Claire M. Cortes,
Darlyn C. Duavis,
Louella Niña C. Englis,
Nica L. Malubay,
Norma C. Lamela
Nutrition and Dietetics
This study aimed to compare the different breakfast eating habits with the corresponding academic performance among elementary school children, ages 10-12 in Mabolo Elementary School. This study utilized the descriptive comparative cross-sectional survey. The outcome of the study was used to determine if the respondent's caloric intake during breakfast would adequately meet the respondent's total energy requirement (TER). In addition, the result of the study was used to determine if the academic performance of the respondents in class was affected by the respondent's food intake. Questionnaires were distributed to the selected respondents that fit the inclusion criteria of the study. Data were then gathered and collected for three (3) months, for three (3) consecutive days. The study used a questionnaire, Breakfast Survey, made and developed by the researchers to assess the comparison of the caloric intake of the respondents to their academic performance. It contains four (4) parts - the first part contains the demographics of the respondents, the second part contains the three (3) questions regarding the respondent's breakfast eating habits, the third part is intended for the homeroom teacher and the fourth contains the 24-hr food recall where the researchers interviewed the respondents on their breakfast food intake.
Among the three hundred forty-two (342) students from Grades four - six aged ten - twelve years old, 299 (87.4%) eats breakfast everyday, 19 (5.6%) eats breakfast only four to six times a week, 22 (6.4%) eats breakfast only one to three times a week and 2 (0.6%) never eats breakfast. The academic performance of the respondents also showed that 10.8% of the school children have an outstanding performance, 28.9% have very satisfactory performance, 35.1% satisfactory performance, 24.6% have fairly satisfactory performance and 0.6% did not meet the expectation. A Tukey post hoc test also revealed that the mean grade for Grades four and five are significantly different; the mean grade for Grades four and six also showed a significant difference. However, the mean grade for Grades five and six do not differ significantly. A One-way ANOVA test showed that there was no significant difference in the mean caloric intake of the school children across grade levels and a Chi-square test revealed that the eating frequency of these school children do not differ significantly between girls and boys.
In conclusion, eating breakfast regularly had a significant effect to the academic performance of the school children in Mabolo Elementary School. However, the caloric intake of the respondents in Mabolo Elementary School does not differ significantly across academic performance.This study will be able to help the students that they will be able to know the recommended calorie intake to be consumed during breakfast in relevance to their gender and age; the parents that they will be instructed on how to prepare a healthy breakfast that will help provide sustenance for a sound psychological advancement among the school children; the teachers and school administrators that they will be able to know the importance of eating breakfast among children and be able to educate and guide them on how learning can be effective if the students go to school with a full stomach and would be able to raise awareness on the benefits and importance on eating breakfast and to help them in implementing programs such as feeding programs and seminars in educating both the parents and students. In the interest of future studies, future researchers will be able to benefit from the researchers' studies by acquiring a new idea to work on the children's breakfast eating habits in relation to the children's attention span and that the future researchers can use the study as one of their sources in getting information; that they may be able to define the importance of breakfast in accordance to learning. They will also be able to consider the socioeconomic status of the students and to see the reason and factors as to why they have that kind of food intake. Future researchers can also take note of the respondent's religion, family background and the food availability around their place. They will also look into the time management of the respondent's and their parents' time to prepare food in the morning. Lastly, they will also consider focusing on one subject; on how eating breakfast affect the grade of this subject.
2. Adole, A. A. , Ware, M. B. . "Assessment of breakfast eating habits and its association with cognitive performance of early adolescents (11-13 years) in Shebedino District, Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia." Journal of Food and Nutrition Sciences
2(4): 130-137, 2014. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.11648/j.jfns.20140204.16
4. Alaimo, K. , Olson, C. M. , Frongillo, E. A. . "Food insufficiency and American school-aged children’s cognitive,academic and psychosocial development." Pediatrics
108(1): 44-53, 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11433053
8. Chen, J. , Cheng, J. , Jiang, P. , Liu, Y., , Tang, Y. , Sun, X. , Wang, T. , Zhao, X. . " Associationsbetween breakfast eating habits and health-promoting lifestyle, suboptimalhealth status in SouthernChina: A population based, crosssectional study." Journal of Translational Medicine
12, 348, 2014. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1186/512967-014-0348-1
11. Departmentof Science, . (2011, November 30). Food exchange lists for meal planning.
12. Davis, J. , Sherer, K. . Applied nutrition and diet therapy for nurses(2nd ed.) Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company, 1994.
13. Deshmukh-Taskar, P. R. , Nicklas, T. A. , O, C. E. , Keast, D.R. , Radcliffe, J.D. , Cho, S. . "The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumption with nutrient intake and weight status in children and adolescents: The national health and nutrition examination survey 1999-2006." Journalof the American Dietetic Association
110(6): 869-878, 2010. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1016/j.jada.2010.03.023
14. Dudek, S. G. . Nutrition handbook for nursingpractices J.B. Lippincott Company, 1987.
18. Gebhart, S. E. , Thomas, R. G. . NutritiveValue of Foods.. United statesdepartment of agriculture Beltsville, Maryland: U.S. Department ofAgriculture, AgriculturalResearch Service, Nutrient DataLaboratory, 2002.
19. Hoyland, A. , Dye, L. , Lawton, C.L. . "A systematic review of the effectof breakfast on the cognitiveperformance of children and adolescents." Nutrition Research Review
22(2): 220-243, 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19930787
21. Katz, D.L. , Friedman, R. . Nutrition inClinical Practice: A comprehensive, evidence-basedmanual for the practitioner (2nd ed.) Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2008.
22. Kleinman, R.E. , Hall, S. , Green, H. , Korzec-Ramirez, D. , Patton, K. , Pagano, M.E. , Murphy, J.M. . "Diet, breakfast,and academic performance in children." Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism
46(suppl.1): 24-30, 2002. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1159/000066399
23. Liu, J., , Hwang, W. , Barbara, D., , Compher, C. . "Regular breakfastconsumption is associated with increasedIQ in kindergarten children." Early Human Development
89(4): 257-262, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3606659/
28. Rampersaud, G.C. , Pereira, M. A. , Girard, B. L , Adams, J. , Metzl, J.D. . "Breakfasthabits, nutritional status, body weight, and academicperformance in children and adolescents." Journal of the American Dietetic Association
105(5): 743-760, 2005. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S00028223050015 13
34. Wesnes, K. A. , Pincock, C. , Richardson, D. , Helm, G. , Hails, S. . "Breakfast reduces declines in attention and memory over the morning in schoolchildren." Appetite
41(3): 329-331, 2003. Retrieved from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195666303001314