Report an error   
Advanced Search

The inhibitory effect of caimito (Chrysophyllum cainito) bark extract on Salmonilla typhi.


Giomen Probert L. Alayon,
Marygrace N. Amora,
Nessa Mae L. Cejas,
Erika Shannen A. Gabud,
Shara Mae A. Hinlayagan,
kevin Joe P. Ybañez,
Brian  M. Denney

Related Institution

College of Allied Medical Sciences - Medical Technology Department - Cebu Doctors' University

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Medical Technology
Publication Date
October 2015


      This study aimed to determine the inhibitory effect of Caimito (Chrysophyllum cainito) on the growth of Salmonella typhi. The experimental method used was randomized-controlled trial. Independent t-test was used in determining the significant difference between the positive control and the experimental set-up. Caimito bark samples were obtained from the Department of Agriculture. These were air-dried at room temperature under shade for one month. Then, these were powdered using a Hammer-Mill mechanical grinder and stored in zip lock plastic bags for storage and transport. An extract is prepared from this by measuring 125 grams of powdered Caimito bark and mixing it with 500 milliliters of distilled water. Alongside with Ceftriaxone, 25% (w/v) Caimito bark extract was placed in agar wells punched through the inoculated agar with Salmonella typhi and incubated at 37°C for 16-18 hours. The zone of inhibition is read and interpreted afterwards using a Vernier caliper.
         The findings demonstrated a clear zone of inhibition around all the 16 agar wells of both the experimental set-up and the positive control, respectively. However, this does not automatically imply that the zone of inhibition formed by using the Caimito bark extract is significant because upon comparison with that of Ceftriaxone, the experimental set-up gave a narrower zone of inhibition with an average of 48.26 millimeters compared to Ceftriaxone which is 56.62 millimeters, suggesting that Salmonella typhi growth was inhibited using Caimito bark extract at 25% (w/v) prepared but not as effective as the positive control.
          In conclusion, the results of this study points out that the Caimito bark extract at 25% (w/v) does indeed have a potential inhibiting effect on Salmonella typhi; but not as effective as Ceftriaxone in averting the proliferation of bacteria. Therefore, it is not significant enough to be used as an alternative for Ceftriaxone in withholding Salmonella typhi growth.


1. Agua, J. . "Pinamungajan typhoid outbreak, water source tested positive of coliform." The Freeman , February 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.philstar.com/cebu-news/2015/02/25/1427435/pinamungajan-typhoid-outbreak-water-source-tested-positive-coliform
2. Bansode, D. S. , Chavan , M. D. . "Effect of mint leaves extract on multi-drug resistant pathogens: A comparative study." European Journal of Pharmaceutical and Medical Research 2(3): 409-416, 2015. Retrieved from: http://www.ejpmr.com/admin/assets/article_issue/1430974382.pdf
3. Capparucci, C. , Gironi, F. , Piemonte, V. . "Tannins extraction from walnut residues." Chemical Engineering Transactions 24, 469-474, 2011. Retrieved from: http://DOI: 10.3303/CET1124079
4. Forbes, B. , Sahm, D. , Weissfeld, A. . Bailey’s and Scott’s diagnostic microbiology (12th ed.). Philippines: Elsevier, 2007.
5. Guevarra, B. . The guidebook to plant screening: Phytochemicaland biological, (2nd ed.). Philippines: UST Publishing House, 2005.
6. Gupta, A. , Naraniwal, M. , Kothari, V. . " Modern extraction methods for preparation of bioactive plant extracts. " International Journal of Applied and Natural Sciences 1(1): 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.researchgate.net/publication/236229645_Modern_extraction_methods_for_preparations_of_bioactive_plant_extracts
7. Herriman, R. . (2013, November 30). Cebu city reports typhoid outbreak.. . Retrieved from: http://ww.outbreaknewstoday.com/cebu-city-report-typhoid-outbreak-S7241/
8. Kam, A. . (2010, November 30). Rancho margot living pharmacy: A medicinal tour.. . Retrieved from: http://www.livingfarmacy.wordpress.com
9. Lim, S. H. , Darah, I. , Jain, K. . "Antimicrobial activities of tannins extracted from rhizophoraapiculata barks." Journal of Tropical Forest Science 18, 59-65, 2006. Retrieved from: http://www.frim.gov.my/v1/jtfsonline/jtfs/v18n1/59-65.pdf
10. Mahon, C. , Lehman, D. , MAnuselis, G. . Textbook of diagnostic microbiology (4th ed.). Missouri: W.B Sanders Company., 2011.
11. Manuel, J. F. , Balangcod, T. D. , Laruan, L. A. , Patacsil, M. C. , Martin, S. P. . "Suppression of growth of some medically important bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Salmonella typhimurium) with plant extracts of selected indigenous semi-temperature medicinal plants in the Philippi" Tangkoyob Research Journal 6, 1-12, 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.ucbcf.edu.ph/Images/Research%20Journals/2012.10.19TANGKOYOB.pdf
12. Masood, S. H. , Aslam, M. . " In vitro susceptibility test of different clinical isolates against ceftriaxone." Oman Medical Journal 25(3): 199-202, 2010. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.5001/omj.2010.56
13. Orijajogun, O. J. , Olajide, O. O. , Fatokun, A. O. , Orishadipe, A. T. , Batari, M. L. . "The preliminary chemical constituents and free radical scavanging activities of the exocarp of the fruit extract of african star apple (Chrysophyllumalbidum G. Don)." International Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Science 3(3): 72-80, 2014. Retrieved from: http://https://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0CB0QFjAAahUKEwjKnZfR35bGAhUCOKYKHeLxAEI&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.ijrpsonline.com%2Fdown_1041.php&ei=bGqBVcq3HYLwmAXi44OQBA&usg=AFQjCNFOUk06hJQKwkj-X0q4CkqkL6VE3A&sig
14. Pansera, M. R. , Iob, G. A. , Atti-Santos, A. C. , Marcelo, R. , Atti-Serafini, L. , Cassel, E. . "Extraction of tannin by Acacia mearnsii with suferficial fluids. " Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology: An Interntional Journal 47(6): 995-998, 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/babt/s47n6/al9v47p6.pdf.
15. Shah, B. , Seth, A. K. . Textbook of pharmacognosy and phytochemistry, (3rd ed.). United States of America: 2010. . Retrieved from: http://McGraw-Hill Companies
16. Virella, G. . Microbiology and infectious diseases (3rd ed.).. United States of America: William & Wilkins, 1997.

Physical Location

LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
Cebu Doctors' University - Main Library U4 In4 2015 Fulltext Print Format

©2022 HERDIN PLUS. All rights reserved. | Contact Us | Keep up to date