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The effect of Theobroma cacao (cacao bean) husk paste on dental plaque index on the lingual surfaces of mandibular incisors of selected dentistry students of Cebu Doctors' University Academic Year 2014-2015.


Eden Grace A. Galeos,
Lieza Mae  B. Canada,
Evryl Joahn  G. Diocera,
Hyndie Cluade E. Escabalon,
Jan Carlo Y. Hernandez,
Gwen Angela M. Lumangtad,
Dymphna Abigal J. Sarza,
Janielle May P. Serrano,
Jennifer Victoria T. Yap,
Sandra G. Lavastilla

Related Institution

College of Dentistry - Cebu Doctors' University

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Publication Date
October 2014


        This study aimed to determine the efficacy of Cacao Bean Husk paste on dental plaque index on the lingual surfaces of the mandibular incisors. This study utilized a randomized controlled trial to determine the effect of Cacao Bean Husk paste on 16 dental students of Cebu Doctors University dental infirmary. It was performed on dental chairs of the Restorative and/or Periodontics Department of the College of Dentistry in Cebu Doctor's University, Mandaue City. After obtaining approval, the participants underwent preliminary oral examination and each subject answered a questionnaire. After questionnaire-based evaluation, the selected participants underwent another oral examination and signed an informed consent. The Cacao bean husk paste was obtained through the pulverisation of raw material and undergone solvent extraction technique by Kim, D.Y., Park, H.Y., Kim, H.S., and Kwon (2002). Participants were randomly divided into control and experimental groups by Fish Bowl Method. Three researchers with 20/20 vision measured the plaque index with disclosing solution and by blind method. Mandibular incisors were topically applied with Cacao Bean Husk Paste for 5 minutes (experimental group) and Chlorhexidine gel for one minute (control group) for three weeks. After the first week, both groups repeated the plaque index measurements by selected researchers. On the second week, another recording of plaque index for both groups were done and a final recording on the third week. This study used a modified Quigley-Hein plaque index scoring system and a periodontal probe to determine the amount of plaque formed. 

      Statistical analysis of data gathered from this study showed noticeable decrease in mean dental plaque index scores of both groups. Pretreatment scores for Control group (5.86) and Experimental group (6.52) decreased to 5.28 and 6.09 respectively after one week of application. On the last week of application, plaque index scores went further down to 4.51 (Control group) and 4.08 (Experimental group). Repeated measure ANOVA for mean plaque index score within Control group suggested no changes between pretreatment and post-treatment values (p value > 0.05). Repeated Measure ANOVA and Post-hoc for mean plaque index score with 5% significance only from pretreatment after 2 weeks post-treatment but not between pretreatment and 1 week post-treatment, and, between first and second week of post-treatment. Calculations of Independent t-Test showed that for the first and second week of post-treatment mean plaque index score between positive control and experimental group were not significantly different on plaque formation (p value > 0.05). Based on this, cacao bean husk paste showed a comparable plaque reduction to chlorhexidine but required a longer time frame for noticeable effects to occur.

        Based on this study, when cacao bean husk paste is used for 10 days, for five minutes, it significantly reduce plaque index and has comparable results to chlorhexidine gel. Future researchers are encouraged to use our study for related literatures on toothpastes/mouthwashes, repeat our experiment over a longer duration and recommend commercial manufacturers to hone the effect of cacao bean husk paste.


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