Fraulein Denise Arigo,
Anna Beatrice Briones,
Anton Miguel Garcia,
Theresa Jean Pragados,
Edmalyn Dehnave Visto,
Emmanuel A. Pardinan
This study was conducted to determine anthelmintic properties of three selected plants: Neem (Azadirachta indica), Makahiya (Mimosa pudica), and Malunggay (Moringa oleifera) leaves in the form of 50% aqueous test suspensions against Ascaris lumbricoides adult worms under laboratory conditions by gathering the mean percentage mortalities after twelve (12) replicates of randomized controlled experimental trials involving a total of four hundred and twenty (420) Ascaris lumbricoides adult worms, with thirty-five (35) subjects per replicate divided into five (5) groups of seven (7) worms randomly assigned to one experimental or control group, with the control groups consisting of Mebendazole as the positive control and 0.9% normal saline solution as the negative control. The anthelmintic property of each plant is determined by their capability to cause death to the Ascaris lumbricoides adult worms.
The Azadirachta indica leaf extracts were able to cause death to an average of 92.86% of the test subjects, followed by Mimosa pudica having a mean percentage mortality of 80.95% and Moringa oleifera with 66.67% displaying that all three possess anthelmintic properties. Of the three, A. indica is the most promising especially when compared to the positive control. A. indica leaf extract is as powerful as the commercially available drug Mebendazole against Ascaris lumbricoides adult worms. It was also found that although both M. pudica and M. oleifera both posses' anthelmintic properties, these are weaker than Mebendazole in laboratory conditions.
These findings imply that A. indica, M. pudica, and M. oleifera are candidates for becoming components of new, more natural, and cheaper anthelmintic drugs that may help in the imminent drug resistance of helminths against the currently available anthelmintic therapies on the market, after further and more in-depth study.
1. Aguinas, F. , Daguinod, C. . The ascaricidal effect of the fresh leaves of Azadirachta indica A. juss (Neem). Talamban, Cebu City. 2003. University of San Carlos,
2. Athanasiadou, S. , Kyriazakis, I. , Jackson , F. , Coop, R. L. . "Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins towards different gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep: In vitro and in vivo studies." Veterinary Parasitology
99(3): 205-219, 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11502368
4. Chagas, A. C. , Vieira, L. S. , de Freitas, A. R. , Araujo, M. R. A. , Arauoj-Filho, J. A. , Araguao, W. R. . "Anthelmintic efficacy of Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) and the homeopathic product Fator Vermes® in Morada Nova sheep." Veterinary Parasitology
151(1): 68-73, 2008. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1016/j.vetpar.2007.10.003
7. Dogar, Z. U. H. , Aslam, F. , Rahman, K. U. , Aslam, M. A. , Tabassum, S. , Rauf, A. . "In vivo and in vitro antihelmintic activity of gemmotherapeutically treated Azadirachta indica (Neem) against gastrointestinal nematodes of sheep and earthworms." African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
6(46): 3171-3179, 2012. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.5897/AJPP12.519
9. Hadjula, M. M. . The Anthelmintic effect of Makahiya (Mimosa pudica) leaves Extract in Native Chicken (Gallus domesticus) naturally infected with Gastro-intestinal Parasites. Zamboanga City. 2006. Ateneo de Zamboanga University, . Retrieved from: http://mahthesis.blogspot.com/
10. Hossain, M. A. , Al-Toubi, W. A. S. , Weli, A. M. , Al-Riyami, Q. , Al-Sabahi, J. . " Identification and characterization of chemical compounds in different crude extracts from leaves of Omani neem." Journal of Taibah University for Science
7(4): 181-188, 2013. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.1016/j.jtusci.2013.05.003
12. Joseph, B. , George, J. , Mohan, J. . " Pharmacology and traditional uses of Mimosapudica." International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research
5(2): 41-44, 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.ijpsdr.com/pdf/vol5-issue2/1.pdf
14. Kondawar, M. , Bengude, R. D. , Maniyar, M. G. , Patil, S. , Hirve, R. V. . "Anthelmintic activity of leaves of Mimosa pudica" International Journal of Institutional Pharmacy and Life Sciences
2(1): 120-125, 2012. Retrieved from: http://https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259288608_Anthelmintic_Activity_of_Leaves_of_Mimosa_Pudica
15. Mordue, A. J. , Nisbet, A. J. . "Azadirachtin from the neem tree Azadirachta indica: Its action against insects." Anais da Sociedade Entomological do Brasil
29(4): 615-632, 2000. Retrieved from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/aseb/v29n4/v29n4a01.pdf
16. Mushtaque, M. , Khan, P. , Mir, M. , Khanday, S. . "Gallbladder ascariasis with uneventful worm migration back to the duodenum: A case report." The Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology
23(2): 169-171, 2012. Retrieved from: http://doi:10.4318/tjg.2012.0287
17. Nwosu, C. O. , Yakubu, S. , Saleh, U. A. , Abdullahi, G. . " In-vitro anthelmintic efficacy of crude aqueous extracts of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf, stem, and root on nematode." Animal Research International
3(3): 549-552, 2006. Retrieved from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.403.5898&rep=rep1&type=pdf
18. Patel, P. , Patel, N. , Patel, D. , Desai, S. , Meshram, D. . "Phytochemical analysis and antifungal activity of Moringa oleifera." International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences
6(5): 144-147, 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.ijppsjournal.com/Vol6Issue5/9066.pdf
21. Quisumbing, E. . Medicinal plants of the Philippines Philippines: Katha Publishing, 1978. 346-349, 4.
23. Radhakrishnan, L. , Gomathinayagam, S. , Balakrishnan, V. . "Evaluation of anthelmintic effect of Neem (Azadirachta indica) leaves on Haemonchus contortus in goats." Research Journal of Parasitology
2, 57-62, 2007. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.3923/jp.2007.57.62
24. Rastogi, T. , Bhutia, V. , Moon, K. , Aswar, P. B. , khadabadi, S. . "Comparative studies on anthelmintic activity of Moringa oleifera and Vitex negundo." Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry
2(2): 181-182, 2009. Retrieved from: http://https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228361305_Comparative_Studies_on_Anthelmintic_Activity_of_Moringa_Oleifera_and_Vitex_Negundo
26. Tayo, G. M. , Pone, J. W. , Komtangi, M. C. , Yondo, J. , Ngangout, A. M. , Mbida, M. . "Anthelminthic activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts evaluated in vitro on four developmental stages of Haemonchus contortus from goats." American Journal of Plant Sciences
5(11): 1702-1710, 2014. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.4236/ajps.2014.511185.