Zarrah May G. Alegarbes,
Shaira Jane Rhea U. Boiser,
Ma. Viar Kim R. Bucad,
Vanessa Mae G. Capistrano,
Lynlee Grace P. Enabe,
AI R. Kakuoka,
Jemaida A. Kulani,
Michelle Elaine C. Paredes,
Jamila Chade M. Patalinjug,
Mohammad Reza Tazik,
Leonila L. Tan
This study aimed to determine the effect of cinnamon bark extract on the dental plaque index on the lingual surfaces of the mandibular anterior teeth among selected dental students of Cebu Doctors' University A.Y. 2015-2016. The study used the randomized controlled trial design. The study was conducted in the Dental Infirmary, College of Dentistry, Cebu Doctors' University. Twenty two participants were selected according to a set of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Eleven participants were randomly allocated for the experimental and control groups. The study used the Modified Quigley-Hein to measure the plaque scores which was defined by G.A. Quigley and J.W. Hein and was modified by the researchers.
After gargling with Cinnamon bark extract, the dental plaque index score on the lingual surfaces of mandibular anterior teeth reduced from 5.55mm to 5mm on tooth number 33, from 5.27mm to 4.36mm on tooth number 32, from 4.91mm to 4.09mm on tooth number 31, from 5.45mm to 4.64mm on tooth number 41, from 6.45mm to 5mm on tooth number 42, and from 5.91mm to 5.36mm on tooth number 43. There was no significant difference in the mean plaque index of the pre-test and post-test scores after the treatment in the control and experimental group, though, both the experimental and control groups showed a decline of mean plaque index score on the 5th day. Mann-Whitney test shows the significant mean difference in the plaque index scores of the mandibular anterior teeth between the experimental and control group, the test revealed that tooth number 33 with a p value of .918, tooth number 32 with a p value of .708, tooth number 31 with a p value of .221, tooth number 41 with a p value of .738, and on tooth 43 with a p value of .644 at .05 level of significance, therefore not rejecting the null hypothesis. This means that the cinnamon oil and 0.12% Chlorhexidine digluconate were comparatively effective due to its minimal mean difference between the experimental and control group.
Based on the findings, the researchers concluded that cinnamon oil is effective in reducing the dental plaque index on the lingual surfaces of the mandibular anterior teeth of selected dental students. Cinnamon bark extract is comparatively effective as 0.12% Chlorhexidine Gluconate when used to reduce the dental plaque index. The researchers would like to recommend using the results of the study as source of added literature and background regarding cinnamon oil for conducting further studies about its effects on the dental plaque index.As the study was based on a 5-day experimental period, further researchers are encouraged to conduct studies that cover a longer timeframe comparing the results of the same experiment in which it would be precisely tested. Second, as the study used Soxhlet method in extracting oil from cinnamon bark, further researchers are encouraged to use steam distillation method. Lastly, the study aimed to decrease the plaque index of the lingual surfaces of the mandibular anterior teeth; the researchers suggest using maxillary first or second molar.
3. Amruthesh, S. . "Dentistry and Ayurveda--III (basic-ama, immunity, ojas, rasas, etiopathogenesis and prevention)." Indian Journal of Dental Research
18(3): 112-119, 2007. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17687173
4. Araujo, M.W.B. , Charles, C.A. , Weinstein, R.B. , McGuire, J.A. , Parikh-Das, A.M. , Du, Q , Zhang, J , Gunsolley, J.C. . "Meta-analysis of the effect of an essential oil-containing mouthrinse on gingivitis and plaque." Journal of American Dental Association
146(8): 610-622, 2015. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adaj.2015.02.011
7. Bauroth, K. , Charles, C.H. , Mankodi, S.M. , Simmons, K. , Zhao, Q. , Kumar, L.D. . "The efficacy of an essential oil antiseptic mouthrinse vs. dental floss in controlling interproximal gingivitis: A comparative study" Journal of the American Dental Association
134(3): 359-365, 2003. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12699051
8. Bouhdid, S. , Abrini, J. , Amensour, M. , Zhiri, A. , Espuny, M.J. , Manresa, A. . "Functional and ultrastructural changes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus cells induced by Cinnamomumverum essential oil" Journal of Applied Microbiology
90(5): 573, 2010. Retrieved from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.13652672.2010.04740.x/abstract
9. Charles, C.H. , Mostler, K.M , Bartels, L.L. , Mankodi, S.M. . "Comparative antiplaque and antigingivitis effectiveness of chlorhexidine and an essential oil mouthrinse: 6-month clinical trial" Journal of Clinical Periodontology
31(10): 878-884, 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15367192
12. Cortelli, S.C. , Cortelli, J.R. , Holzhausen, M. , Franco, G.C.N. , Rebelo, R.Z. , Sonagere, A.S. , Queiroz, Cda S. . "Essential oils in one-stage full-mouth disinfection: Double-blind, randomized clinical trial of long-term clinical, microbial and salivary effects" Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
26(4): 333-342, 2009. Retrieved from: http://10.1111/j.1600-051X.2009.01376.x
15. Dela Peña, A. , Galan, J.K. , Galeon, M.J.E. , Heyrana, M.K.J. , Lim, I.A. , Maningo, S.M. , Ramos, A.L. , Vesuna, J.M. . The effect of raisins (Vitisvinefera) on the plaque index of the lingual surfaces of the mandibular anterior teeth among selected dental students of Cebu Doctors. North Reclammation, Mandaue City. 2015. Cebu Doctors, A.Y.
21. Faveri, M. , Feres , M. , Shibli, J.A. , Hayacibara, RF. , Hayacibara, M,M. , Figueiredo, L.C. . "Microbiota of the dorsum of the tongue after plaque accumulation: An experimental study in humans" Journal of Periodontology
77(9): 1359-1545, 2006. Retrieved from: http://10.1902/jop.2006.050366
22. Filoche, S.K. , Soma, K. , Sissons, C.H. . "Antimicrobial effects of essential oil in combination with Chlorhexidine digluconate" Oral Microbiology and Immunology
20, 221-225, 2005. Retrieved from: http://wwwncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15943766
23. Fine , D.H. , Markowitz, K. , Furgang, D. , Goldsmith, D. , Ricci-Nitel, D. , Charles, C. , Peng, P. . "Effect of rinsing with an essential oil-containing mouthrinse on subgingival period on pathogens" Journal of Periodontology
78(10): 1935-1942, 2007. Retrieved from: http://10.1902/jop.2007.070120
24. Gupta, C. , Garg, A.P. , Prakash, D. , Goyal , S. , Gupta, S. . (2010, November 30). Comparative study of cinnamon oil and clove oil on some oral microbiota. Pharmacologyonline. . Retrieved from: http://pharmacologyonline.silae.it/files/newsletter/2011/vol2/006.guptarevised.pdf
25. Gupta, D. , Nayan, S. , Tippanawar, H.K. , Patil, G. , Jain, A. , Momin, R.K. , Gupta, R.K. , Nayan, S. , Tippanawar, H.K. , Patil, G. , Jain, A. , Momin, R.K. , Gupta, R.K. . "Are herbal mouthwash efficacious over chlorhexidine on the dental plaque?" Pharmacognosy Research
7(3): 277-281, 2015. Retrieved from: http://10.4103/0974-8490.155874
27. Kothiwale, S.V. , Patwardhan, V. , Gandhi, M. , Sohoni, R. , Kumar, A. . "A comparative study of antiplaque and antigingivitis effects of herbal mouthrinse containing tea treeoil, clove and basil with commercially available essential oil mouthrinse" Journal of Indian Society of Periodontology
8(3): 316-320, 2015. Retrieved from: http://10.4103/0972-124X.134568
28. Kwon, J.A. , Yu, C.B , Park, H.D . "Bacterial effects ans inhibition of cell separation of cinnamic aldehyde on Bacillus cereus" Letters in Applied Microbiology
37(1): 61-65, 2003. Retrieved from: http://10.1046/j.1472-765X.2003.01350.x
30. Loesche, W. . "Dental caries and periodontitis: Contrasting two infections that have medical implications." Infectious Disease Clinics of North America
21(2): 471-502, 2007. Retrieved from: http://http:/www.ncbinlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17561079
31. Lovegrove, J.M. . "Dental plaque revisited: Bacteria associated with periodontal disease" Journal of the New Zealand Society of Periodontology
(87): 7-21, 2004. Retrieved from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/1543484
32. Magetsari, R. . "Effectiveness of cinnamon oil coating on K-wire as an antimicrobial agent against Staphylococcus Epidermidis" Malaysian Orthopaedic Journal
7(3): 10-14, 2013. Retrieved from: http://10.5704/MOJ.1311.010
33. Malhotra , R. , Grover, V. , Kapoor, A. , Saxena, D. . "Comparison of the effectiveness of a commercially available herbal mouthrinse with chlorhexidine gluconate at the clinical and patient level" Journal of indian Society Periodontology
15(4): 349-352, 2011. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3283931/
34. Marsh, P.D. . "Dental plaque: biological significance of a biofilm and community life-style" Journal of Clinical Periodontology
32(6): 7-15, 2005. Retrieved from: http://10.1111/j.1600-051X.2005.00790.x
38. Nelson, S.J. . Wheeler St. Louis, Missouri: Elsevier, 2015. (10th ed.)
40. Pizzo, G. , Cara, M. L. , Licata, M. E. , Pizzo, I. , D, M. . "The effects of an essential oil and an Amine Fluoride/Stannuos Fluoride mouthrinse in supragingival plaque growth." Journal of Periodontology
79(7): 1177-1183, 2008. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1902/jop.2008.070583.
44. Sharma, N. , Charles, C. H. , Lynch, M. C. , Qaqish, J. , McGuire, J. A. , Galustians, J. G. , Kumar, L. D. . "Adjunctive benefit of an essential oil- containing mouthrinse in reducing plaque and gingivitis in patients who brush and floss regularly: a six-month study." Journal of the American Dental Association
135(4): 496-504, 2004. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15127875.
45. Silveyra, L. J. R. . Investigations on automated methods for dental plaque detection . Edgbaston, Birmingham, United Kingdom. 2011. University of Birmingham,
47. Teles, R. P. , Teles, F. R. F. . "Antimicrobial agents used in the control of periodontal biofilms: Effective adjuncts to mechanical plaque control?" Brazilian Oral Research
23(Spec ISS 1): 39-48, 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/bor/v23s1/07.pdf.
48. Vangalapati, M. , Sree Satya, N. , Surya Prakash, D. V. , Avanigadda , S. . "A review on pharmacological activities and clinical effects of cinnamon species." Research Journal of Pharmaceutical, Biologicaland Chemical Sciences
3(1): 653-663, 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.rjpbcs.com/pdf/2012_3(1)/80.pdf.
51. Zainal-Abidin, Z. , Mohd-Said, S. , Majid, F. A. A. , Mustapha, W. A. W. , Jantan, I. . "Anti-bacterial activity of cinnamon oil on oral pathogens." The Open Conference Proceedings Journal
4(Suppl-2, M): 12-16, 2013. Retrieved from: http://benthamopen.com/ABSTRACT/TOPROCJ- 4-2-12.