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Grip strength and its relation to demographic characteristics among nonteaching employees of Cebu Doctors' University: Basis for normative data development of Jamar hand dynamometer.


Beatriz marie C. Castaño,
Apache  R. Lago,
Emmylou  A. Sangalang

Related Institution

College of Rehabilitative Sciences - Occupational Therapy Department - Cebu Doctors' University

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Occupational Therapy
Publication Date
March 2015


Grip strength is an important parameter of hands function, hence it is necessary to evaluate it correctly. However, one of the main difficulties in evaluating grip strength is the absence of [population-based norms. Therefore, the primary aim of this study is to determine the relation of grip strength and the demographic characteristics to arrive at a normative data of Jamar Hand Dynamometer as a basis for future normative data development of Jamar Hand Dynamometer among Filipinos. This pilot normative study included one hundred eighty (180) Filipinos nonteaching employees of Cebu Doctors' University aged twenty one (21) to sixty (60) years old and above. Respondent's data sheet were provided to the participants to gather demographic information, ensure that respondent fits to criteria, and determine patient's occupation subgroup: manual or sedentary. Furthermore, the Jamar Hand Dynamometer was utilized to determine the grip strength respectively.                                                                          

According to demographic profiles of respondents by age groups, ages 21 to44 years old covered a greater proportion from the total population. As to gender and occupation, among 180 respondents: male respondents (56%), female respondents (44%), manual workers (52.3%) sedentary workers (47.8%) The overall average grip strength of respondents was 75.30 pounds which is lesser than that of the Western and Iranian normative values and greater than that of Malaysian normative values. There was no correlation in grip strength and age (r = 0.05) There was a strongly significant difference in the grip strength values of male and female conditions; t (162.410) =-11.199, p = 0.000. Lastly, there was significant difference in the grip strength values of manual workers and sedentary workers conditions; t (162.410) =-11.199, p =0.000. The determination of a significant difference of grip strength between genders and occupations led to the establishment of normative values of Jamar Hand Dynamometer among Nonteaching Employees of Cebu Doctors' University.                                                 

Based on the findings, the study have concluded that grip strength is not correlated with age. However, grip strength differed between demographic characteristics gender and occupation. Furthermore, normative values of Jamar Hand Dynamometer among nonteaching employees of Cebu Doctors' University has been established. For current study, researchers recommends its norms to be used as a basis of grip strength for nonteaching employees of Cebu Doctors University and to consider annual check-up of hand function to promote optimal health of nonteaching employees . For future studies, the following recommendations were made. To cover greater number of population that may be generalized and used for Filipinos, to include physical activity engagement in the exclusion criteria to achieve an accurate normative data, to objectively gather manual and sedentary workers, to utilize nonlinear relationship model in determining relationship between grip strength and age, to statistically compare norms with other populations' norms.


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