Report an error   
Advanced Search

The effect of cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) and carabao grass (Paspalum conjugatum) leaf extract on mortality of Aedes aegypti larvae.


Pearl Mariam Calago,
Maria Ricka Dayao,
Philline Kent Roleda,
Cyrille Rosbelle Saquilabon,
Jerah Mae Tecson,
Johanna Anne Marie Wee,
Elvira A. Arong

Related Institution

College of Arts and Sciences - Biology Department - Cebu Doctors' University

Publication Information

Publication Type
Thesis Degree
Publication Date
October 2015


      Dengue is one of the most common mosquito-borne disease. It is very rampant in the Philippines. Insecticides are sometimes inefficient in eradicating these insects. This study was conducted to determine the larvicidal potential of Imperata cylindrica and Paspalum conjugatum leaf extract at different concentrations namely: 20ppm, 40ppm and 60ppm. The study aimed to compare the percent mortalities across of the experimental and control groups. The experiment made use of 25 Aedes aegypti larvae per cup with 15 replicates per concentration. This research applied a completely randomized design (CRD) and was conducted in one of the Cebu Doctors' University CAS Laboratory. The dried grasses were macerated with ethanol. Ethanol was then taken out through evaporation with the use rotary evaporator. The crude extract was diluted with distilled water to acquire the desired concentration. After obtaining the results, it was processed and analyzed using the IBM SPSS version 22.

     The study showed 0% larvicidal effect by the extracts of Carabao and Cogon grass. Carabao grass contains organic phenolic compounds that are toxic to the larvae but the concentration used for the experimentation was not high enough to kill the larvae. Control groups were done and yielded expected results. Positive control, which was Baygon, showed 100% mortality while negative control which was distilled water, showed 0% mortality.

      Cogon grass did not show any mortality against the Aedes larvae in any of the given concentrations used due to the low amount of phenolic compounds that can cause larval death. Carabao grass only rendered to what can be observed as paralysis of the larvae in the first twenty four hours, larval movement was observed hours after. Higher concentrations of the Cogon grass is recommended and the use of second and third instar of Aedes larvae is suggested for future studies on potential larvicidal activity of the experimental plants.


1. Acheuk, F. , Doumandji-Mitiche, B. . "Insecticidal activity of alkaloids extract of Pergulaia tometosa (Asclepiadaceae) against fifth instar larvae of Locusta migratoria cinerascens (Fabricius 1781) (Orhoptera: Acidida). " International Journal of Science and Advanced Technology, 3(6): 2013. Retrieved from: http://www.ijsat.com/admin/download/Insecticidal%20activity%20of%20alkaloids%20extract%20of%20Pergularia%20tomentosa%20.pdf
2. Administrative Order, . (2010, November 30). Subject: Revised dengue clinical management guidelines . . Retrieved from: http://www.chd11.doh.gov.ph/webfiles/pdf/resu/ao2012_0006.pdf
3. Amante , J. S. , Gulane III, B. , Villafuerte, A. M. , Wong IV, J. . Phytochemical components of Carabao grass (Paspalum conjugatum) . Cebu Doctors’ University, Mandaue City. 2015.
4. Ayeni, K. E. , Yahaya, S. A. . "Phytochemical screening of three medicinal plants neem leaf (Azadirachta indica), Hibiscus leaf (Hibiscus rosasinensis) and spear grass leaf (Imperata cylindrical). " Wilolud Journals , 2010. Retrieved from: http://https://www.scribd.com/doc/39778314/PHYTOCHEMICAL-SCREENING-OF-THREE-MEDICINAL-PLANTS-NEEM-LEAF-Azadirachta-indica-HIBISCUS-LEAF-Hibiscus-rosasinensis-AND-SPEAR-GRASS-LEAF-Imperata
5. Beetie, A. A. . "Sour paspalum – Tropical weed or forage? " Journal of Range Management Archives 27(5): 347-349, 1974. Retrieved from: http://https://journals.uair.arizona.edu/index.php/jrm/article/view/6355/5965
6. Billings, R. F. . (). Hello cogongrass: Goodbye Texas forests and grasslands! . . Retrieved from: http://texasinvasives.org/resources/publications/HelloCogongrass.pdf
7. Bergmann, E. D. , Levinson, Z. H. , Mechoulam, R. . "The toxicity of Veratrum and Solanum alkaloids to housefly larvae. " Journal of Insect Physiology 2(3): 162-177, 1958. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1016/0022-1910(58)90002-7
8. Centre for Agricultu, . (2014, November 30). Paspalum conjugatum (sour paspalum). . . Retrieved from: http://www.cabi.org/isc/datasheet/38951
9. Centers for Disease , . (2011, November 30). Mosquito life-cycle. . . Retrieved from: http://www.cdc.gov/Dengue/entomologyEcology/m_lifecycle.html
10. Cannas, A. . (2014, November 30). Tannins: Fascinating but sometimes dangerous molecules. . . Retrieved from: http://poisonousplants.ansci.cornell.edu/toxicagents/tannin.html
11. Deore, S. L. , Khadabadi, S. S. . "Larvicidal activity of the saponin fractions of Chlorophytum borivilianum santapau and Fernandes." Journal of Entomology and Nematology 1(5): 64-66, 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.academicjournals.org/article/article1381748444_Deore%20and%20Khadabadi.pdf
12. Department of Health, . (2009, November 30). Leading causes of child mortality: Ten (10) leading causes of child mortality by age-group (1-4, 5-9, 10-14) & sex no. & rate/100,000 population Philippines,. . Retrieved from: http://www.doh.gov.ph/node/1488
13. Dominguez, M. N. N. . "Current DF/DHF prevention and control programme in the Philippines. " Dengue Bulletin 21, 1997. Retrieved from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/148536/1/dbv21p41.pdf
14. Espinosa, M. , Giamperetti, S. , Abril, M. , Seijo, S. . "Vertical transmission of Dengue virus in Aedes aegypti collected in Puerto Iguazu, Misiones, Argentina. " Journal of Sao Paulo Institute of Tropical Medicine 56(2): 2014. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.1590/S0036-46652014000200013
15. Evans , C. W. , Moorhead, D. J. , Bargeron, C. T. , Douce, G. K. . (2005, November 30). Field guide identification of Cogongrass: With comparisons to other commonly found grasses species in the Southeast. . . Retrieved from: http://invasive.org/weedcd/pdfs/cogongrassid.pdf
16. Gutierrez Jr., P. M. , Antepuesto, A. N. , Eugenio, B. A. L. , Santos, M. F. L. . "Larvicidal activity of selected plant extracts against the dengue vector Aedes aegypti mosquito." International Research Journal of Biological Sciences 3(4): 23-32, 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.isca.in/IJBS/Archive/v3/i4/5.ISCA-IRJBS-2013-274.pdf
17. Hari, B. R. , Savithramma, N. . "Phytochemical screening of underutilized species of Poaceae." Journal of Pharmacy Research 1(10): 947, 2013. Retrieved from: http://connection.ebscohost.com/c/articles/95848344/phytochemical-screening-underutilized-species-poaceae
18. Howard , J. L. . (2004, November 30). Imperata brasiliensis, I. cylindrica. . . Retrieved from: http://www.fs.fed.us/database/feis/plants/graminoid/impspp/all.html#37
19. Jackson, F. L. C. , Behkeit, S. S. , El Etr, S. M. , Quach, N. K. . "Larvicidal effects of grain Sorghum (Sorghum Bicolor) seedling extracts upon Culex pipiens Larvae. " Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association 6(3): 500-503, 1990. Retrieved from: http://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/content/part/JAMCA/JAMCA_V06_N3_P500-503.pdf
20. Lloyd, L. S. . (2002, November 30). Environmental Health Project: Best practices for dengue prevention and control in the Americas (Strategic Report 7).. . Retrieved from: http://www.ehproject.org/PDF/Strategic_papers/SR7-BestPractice.pdf
21. MacDonald, G. E. , Brecke, B. J. , Gaffney, J. F. , Langeland, K. A. , Ferrell, J. A. , Sellers, B. A. . (2007, November 30). Cogongrass (Imperata cylindrica (L.) Beauv.): Biology, ecology and management in Florida.. . Retrieved from: http://bugwoodcloud.org/CDN/floridainvasives/cogongrassWG20200.pdf
22. Manidool , C. . (1991, November 30). Paspalum conjugatum Bergius: Gramineae. . . Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/ag/agp/agpc/doc/Gbase/DATA/PF000492.HTM
23. McClelland, C. K. . (1914, November 30). Grasses and forage plants of Hawaii (Bulletin No. 36).. . Retrieved from: http://www.ctahr.hawaii.edu/oc/freepubs/pdf/B-36.pdf
24. Moog, F. A. . (2005, November 30). Country pasture/forage resource profiles: Philippines.. . Retrieved from: http://www.fao.org/ag/AGp/agpc/doc/Counprof/PDF%20files/Philippines.pdf
25. Parkavi, V. , Vignesh, M. , Selvakumar, K. , Mohamed, J. M. , Ruby, J. J. . "Antibacterial activity of aerial parts of Imperata cylindrica (L) Beauv" International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 4(3): 209-212, 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.ijpsdr.com/pdf/vol4-issue3/8.pdf
26. Parvathy, N. G. , Padma, R. , Renjith, V. , Rahate, K. P. , Saranya, T. S. . "Phytochemical screening and anthelminthic activity of methanolic extract of Imperata cylindrica." International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 4(Suppl. 1): 232-234, 2012. Retrieved from: http://www.ijppsjournal.com/Vol4Suppl1/3187.pdf
27. Rai, M. , Carpinella, M. C. , Carpinella, M. C. . (2005, November 30). Advances in phytomedicines: Naturally occuring bioactive compounds (Vol. 3). . . Retrieved from: ttps://books.google.com/books?id=U4wE03fnQYgC&pg=PA64&lpg=PA64&dq=gallic+acid+toxic+to+insect+larvae&source=bl&ots=PjRFfShQDh&sig=uLyKHHgmeU9ei2bhw3NSB0eLN3I&hl=en&sa=X&ved=0CCYQ6AEwAWoVChMI26-gm6WMyQIVRlYeCh2gwgS6#v=onepage&q=gallic%20acid%20toxic%20to%2
28. Rao, B. R. , Nagasampige, M. H. , Ravikiran, M. . "Evaluation of nutraceutical properties of selected small millets." Journal of Pharmacy and BioAllied Sciences 3(2): 277-279, 2011. Retrieved from: http://doi: 10.4103/0975-7406.80775
29. Rey, D. , Pautou, M. P. , Meyran, J. C. . "Histopathological effects of tannic acid on the midgut epithelium of some aquatic Diptera larvae." Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 73(2): 173-181, 1999. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10066397
30. Robson, S. . (2006, November 30). Prussic acid poisoning in livestock. Primefact 417. . . Retrieved from: http://www.dpi.nsw.gov.au/__data/assets/pdf_file/0013/111190/prussic-acid-poisoning-in-livestock.pdf
31. Rodriguez, J. . (2012, November 30). Carabao grass: Common uses and where to buy them. . . Retrieved from: http://www.brown-man.com/2013/07/carabao-grass.html
32. Saxena, A. , Saxena, G. , Singh, M. , Neeraj, P. K. . "Study on larvicidal potential of flavonoid extracted from Ageratum conyzoides (Asteraceae) for controlling Culex quinquefaciatus (Culicidae) Diptera. " Science Secure Journal of Biotechnology 2(3): 75-82, 2013. Retrieved from: http://sciencesecurejournals.com/journals/pdf/june/Saxena%20A%20et%20al.%20SSJBt%20Vol%202%20Iss%203%202013.pdf
33. United States Enviro, . (). Biopesticides registration action document: Saponins of Chenopodium quinoa. . . Retrieved from: http://www3.epa.gov/pesticides/chem_search/reg_actions/registration/decision_PC-097094_28-Dec-07.pdf
34. University of Florid, . (2008, November 30). Larvicides and larviciding. In Florida Coordinating Council on Mosquito Control, Florida mosquito control: The state of the mission as defined by mosquito controllers, regulators, and environmental managers.. Mosquito Information website. . Retrieved from: http://mosquito.ifas.ufl.edu/Larviciding.htm
35. World Health Organiz, . (2004, November 30). Guidelines for laboratory and field testing of mosquito larvicides. . . Retrieved from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/69101/1/WHO_CDS_WHOPES_GCDPP_2005.13.pdf
36. Yenesew, A. , Twinomuhwezi, H. , Kabaru, J. M. , Akala, H. M. , Kiremire, B. T. , Herdenreich, M. , Walsh, D. S. . "Antiplasmodial and larvicidal flavonoids from Derris trifoliate. " Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia 23(3): 409-414, 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.ajol.info/index.php/bcse/article/viewFile/47665/34042
37. Zuloaga, F. O. , Morrone, O. , Davidse, G. , Pennington, S. J. . "Classification of biogeography of Panicoidea (Poaceae) in the new world. " Aliso: A Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany 23(1): 2007. Retrieved from: http://scholarship.claremont.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1094&context=alis

Physical Location

LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
Cebu Doctors' University - Main Library U1 Ef36c 2015 Fulltext Print Format

©2022 HERDIN PLUS. All rights reserved. | Contact Us | Keep up to date