Leticia L. Sarte,
Ma. Cynthia R. Dungo,
William C. Bayhon,
Vincent A. Alba,
Ma. Margarita N. Fabella,
Susanna R. Lim-Lopez,
Jesus N. Sarol Jr.,
Olive D. Quizon,
Antonio D. Ligsay
Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital Dr. Victor R. Potenciano Medical Center
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence of overweight and obese using different growth charts, determine correlation of anthropometric measurements with Body Mass Index (BMI) and to determine factors associated with overweight/obesity in high school students.
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional; two-stage stratified cluster sampling design
STUDY POPULATION: High school students aged 11-19 years in selected private and public schools in San Juan, Mandaluyong and Pasig Cities.
METHODS: Trained data collectors took anthropometric measurements and administered two questionnaires. Data was encoded into a database. Prevalence of obesity was computed based on different operational definitions of obesity. Pearson moment correlation coefficient, logistic regression analysis, odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were used to analyze data.
RESULTS: The overall prevalence rates using the different growth charts were as follows: Must 15.45%, CDC 6.1%, IOTF (Bellizi, et al) 17.2% and IOTF (Asian) 17.0%. Prevalence rate was 3x higher instudents from private schools compared to public schools, and 2x higher in males than in females. All anthropometric measurements had a significant direct positive correlation with BMI. The mid-arm circumference had the highest correlation. The odds of being overweight/obese was highest with the neck circumference. factors found to be associated with overweight/obesity were playing computer games, riding private vehicle, and non-performance of household chores. Watching television was not found to be a significant factor. More overweight/obese students engaged in sports activities and exercise. Overweight/obese students were significantly teased more by their peers. There is not much difference in the ranking of frequently consumed food items between the two groups. Not eating breakfast daily, not eating three full meals daily and not eating at least one snack daily were found to be directly associated with obesity.
CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of overweight/obesity obtained in this study shows a fourfold increase. Different growth charts can be used to determine prevalence. Anthropometric measurements correlated positively with BMI and are promising tools as predictors of overweight/obesity in children. The dominance of computer use over television watching as a significant factor to development of obesity in this study, indicates evolving patterns of sedentary habits ushered in by modern times. The psychological effect of being overweight/obese should be studied further. Nutrition education in terms of the quality and quantity of food and regularity of intake should be directed to all adolescents.