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Where we are: Socio-ecological and health profile of the Philippine LIFEcourse study in CARdiovascular disease epidemiology (LIFECARE) study sites.


Elmer Jasper B. Llanes,
Paulette D. Nacpil-Dominguez,
Rody G. Sy,
Nina  T. Castillo-Carandang,
Felix Eduardo R. Punzalan,
Paul Ferdinand M. Reganit,
Wilbert Allan G. Gumatay,
Olivia  T. Sison,
Queenie G. Ngalob,
Felicidad V. Velandria

Related Institution

Department of Medicine - Philippine General Hospital - University of the Philippines Manila

College of Medicine - University of the Philippines Manila

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Publication Information

Publication Type
Publication Sub Type
Journal Article, Original
Acta Medica Philippina
Publication Date
April-June 2014


OBJECTIVE: This study aims to describe the socio-ecological and health profile of the Philippine LIFECARE study sites, its health care services and leading causes of mortality and morbidity.
METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study that recruited participants aged 20-50 years from Metro Manila and four provinces (Bulacan, Batangas, Quezon, Rizal). Study sites were characterized according to their geographical area, terrain and environmental profile, and available health care system.
RESULTS: 3,072 subjects were included, with male-to-female ratio of 1:1.3 and majority aged 30-50 years. Metro Manila was the most congested site. Two-thirds of the 62 villages (barangays) were rural, outside the town proper, and in lowlands. One-fourth were along coastal area. Almost all were accessible by public transportation. Majority have reduced forest cover, but were relatively safe from environmental hazards. Rural health units, hospitals, and professional health care workers were concentrated in Metro Manila. Leading cause of morbidity was respiratory tract infection, while cardiovascular diseases caused most of mortalities.
CONCLUSION: Study sites were mainly rural, outside the town proper and in lowlands, with available public transportation. There is an unequal distribution of health resources. Cardiovascular diseases is still the leading cause of mortality. The disparities in geographical access to health care play an important role in shaping human health.


Physical Location

LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development Library Box No. 107 Fulltext pdf (Request Document)
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development Fulltext Print Format

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