Report an error   
Advanced Search

Anatomic measurements of the laryngeal framework in Filipino adult cadavers.


Jose Raindrop S. Embate,
Joel Romualdez,
William Lim

Related Institution

Department of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery - St. Luke's Medical Center

Publication Information

Publication Type
Publication Sub Type
Journal Article, Original
Philippine Journal of Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery
Publication Date


OBJECTIVE: To determine the size and proportion of the laryngeal cartilage framework in adult Filipino cadavers and its possible clinical and surgical implications.

DESIGN: Descriptive study

SETTING: Tertiary hospital

PATIENTS: Twenty human larynges (15 males and 5 females) were harvested from cadavers. The age range of the male subjects was 36 to 65 years and for the female subjects was at 37 to 56 years.

RESULTS: Most of the laryngeal framework measurements (except the angulation of the thyroid ala and cricoid cartilage) were larger in males compared to females. The location of the anterior commissure (B) in relation to the midpoint of the midline length of the distance from the superior thyroid notch to the lower edge of the thyroid ala on the thyroid cartilage was approximately 1.00 mm slightly above or below midpoint in females and approximately 1.00 mm above to 2.0 mm below midpoint in males. The angle made between the lines of the upper and lower edge of cricoid cartilage (FF) was approximately 35 degree in males and 45 degree in females. The internal antero-posterior (WX) and lateral distances (YZ) of the cricoid cartilage in males ranged from 16.0 to 19.60 mm and 14.00 to 32.50 respectively, while in females, it measured from only 7.70 mm to 13.20 mm and 8.00 to 12.50 mm. The mean distance between the tip of the vocal cord process and muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage in males is approximately 11.44 mm whereas that of the female arytenoids cartilage is measured at 10.26 mm on the average.

CONCLUSION: Considerable gender and race related differences in many of the geometric measurements of the laryngeal framework were observed in the study. These morphological differences have important clinical and surgical implications. They are critical to the accurate placement of needles and probes in laryngeal electromyography and vocal cord injection, medialization procedures, in performing supraglottic laryngectomy, as well as the precise planning of laryngeal framework surgery.


1. Eckel, HE , Sittel, S , Zorokawa, P , Jerke, A . "Dimensions of the laryngeal framework in adults" Surgical Radiology Anst 16(1): 31-36, 1994. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8047966
2. Sprinzl, GM , Eckel, HE , Sittel, C , Potosching, C , Koebke, J . "Morphometric measurements of the cartilaginous larynx: an anatomic correlate of laryngal surgery" Head and Neck 21(8): 743-750, 1999. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10562688
3. Meiteles, LZ , Lin, PT , Wenk, EJ . "An anatomic study of the external laryngeal framework with surgical implications" Otolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery 106(3): 235-240, 1992. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1589212
4. Tayama, N , Chan, RW , Kaga, K , Titze, IR . "Geometric characterization of the laryngeal cartilage framework for the purpose of biomechanical modeling" The Annals of Otology, Rhinology & laryngology 110(12): 1154-1161, 2001. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11768707
5. Tayama, N , Chan, RW , Kaga, K , Titze, IR . "Functional definitions of the vocal fold geometry for laryngeal biomechanical modeling" The Annals of Otology, Rhinology & laryngology 111(1): 83-92, January 2002. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11800376
6. Maue, WM , Dickson, DR . "Cartilages and ligaments of the adult human larynx" Archives of Otolaryngology 94, 432-9, 1971. Retrieved from: http://archotol.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=603864
7. Hirano, M , Yukizane, K , Kurita, S , Hibi, S . "Assymetry of the laryngeal framework: a morphologic study of cadaver larynges " The Annals of Otology, Rhinology & laryngology 98(2): 135-140, 1989. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2916824
8. Ishiki, N . Phonatory Surgery: external laryngeal surgery not requiring entry into the vocal tract. In: Gould WJ, Lawrence VL, eds. Surgical Care of Voice disorders New York: Springer-Verlag, 1984. 59-109.
9. Bailey, Bj , Biller, HF . Surgery of of the larynx. Philadelphia: WB Saunders Company, 1985. 15-18.
10. Eckel, HE , Sprinzl, GM , Sittel, C , Koebke, J , Damn, M , Stennert, E . "Anatomy of the glottis and subglottis in the pediatric larynx" HNO 48(7): 501-7, July 2000. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10955227
11. Eckel, HE , Koebke, J , Sittel, C , Sprinzl, GM , Pototsching, C , Stennert, E . "Morphology of the human larynx during the first five years of life studied on whole organ serial sections" The Annals of Otology, Rhinology & laryngology 108(3): 232-8, March 1999. Retrieved from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10086614

Physical Location

LocationLocation CodeAvailable FormatAvailability
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development Library Box No. 64 Fulltext Print Format
Philippine Society of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Abstract Print Format
Philippine Council for Health Research and Development Fulltext pdf (Request Document)

©2022 HERDIN PLUS. All rights reserved. | Contact Us | Keep up to date