Maria Luz B. Soria, Rody G. Sy, Bernard S. Vega, Tommy Ty-Willing, Jennifer Salunat-Flores, Felicidad V. Velandria,
Felix Eduardo R. Punzalan Related Institution
UP-Philippine General Hospital UP-Philippine General Hospital
Publication Sub Type
Philippine Journal of Internal Medicine
Six times a year (6x/year)
OBJECTIVES: The study determined the 8-year incidence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG), and the current prevalence of DM, IFG, and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), among respondents of the 1998 Food and Nutrition Research Institute 5th National Nutrition Survey (FNRI-NNS) in the National Capital Region (NCR), Region 3, and Region 4 of the Philippines.
DESIGN: This was a descriptive cohort study.
SETTING: This was a community-based study Including all previous respondents of the 1998 FNRI-NNS survey in NCR, Region 3, and Region 4.
PARTICIPANTS: Out of the previous 1,316 individuals in the 3 areas of the 1998 FNRI-NNS data, a total of 1,085 respondents were included in the Philippine Cardiovascular Outcome Study (PhilCOS) with a response rate of 82 percent. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The study determined the 9-years incidence rate of DM and IFG, and the 2006 If prevalence of DM, IFG, and IGT of the cohort.
RESULTS: The 8-years incidence of DM using fasting Wood glucose (FBG) was 9 percent, and of IFG was 10 percent. The prevalence of DM was 19 percent (combined FBG, 2H PG, and interview). The prevalence of IFG was 9 percent based on the cut-off IFG level of 110-125mg/dL. However, using the newer cut-off level of 100-125mg/dL, the prevalence of IFG increased to 30 percent. The prevalence of IGT was 25 percent. CONCLUSIONS: The PhilCOS-DM has reported the first 8-year incidence rate of DM and IFG in NCR, Region 3, and Region 4. PhilCOS-DM also determined significant proportions of DM, IFG, and IGT in the cohort that warrant early aggressive intervention for prevention and management. References
1. "Guidelines on diabetes, pre-diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases: Full text, The Task force on diabetes and cardiovascular diseases of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) and of the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD)"
European Heart Journal doi: 10. 1093/eurohearttj/eh1261. , January 2007
2. Malmberg, K , Yusuf , S , et al, . "Impact of diabetes on long-term prognosis in patients with unstable angina, and non-Q wave myocardial infarction: Results of the OASIS Registry"
Circulation 102, 1014, 2000
3. Cho, F , Rimm, E B, Stampfer, M J, Willet, W C. "The Impact of diabetes mellitus and prior myocardial infarction on mortality from all causes and from coronary heart disease in men"
Journal American College Casrdiology 40, 954, 2002
4. Nichols, G A, Hillier, , et al, . "Congestive heart failure in type 2 diabetes: Prevalence, incidence, and risk factors"
Diabetic Care 24, 1422, 2001
5. Shindler, D M, et al, . "Diabetes Mellitus, predictor of morbidity and mortality in the Studies of left Ventricular Dysfunction (SOLVD) Trials and Registry"
American Journal of Cardiology 77, 1017, 1996
6. Morgan, C L, Currie, C J. "The Prevalence of multiple diabetes-related complications"
Diabetes Medicine 17, 146, 2000
7. Fox, C , Sullivan, L D, Agostino, R , Wildon, P . "The Significant effect of diabetes duration mortality: The Framingham Heart Study"
Diabetes Care 27, 704 - 708, March 2004
8. Beckman, J A. "Diabetes and atherosclerosis: Epidemiology, pathophysiology, and management"
JAMA 287, 2570, 2002
9. Wild, S , Roglic, G , Green, A , Sicree, R , King , H . "Global prevalence of diabetes: Estimates for the year 2000 and projections for 20130"
Diabetes Care 27, 1047, 2004
10. Ali Mokdad, , Earl Ford, , Bowman, B . "Prevalence of obesity, diabetes, and obesity-related health risk factors, 2001"
JAMA 289, 76, 2003
11. Crisostomo, T D. "Diabetes"
Diabetic Watch 12(2): 10, 1996
12. Yusuf , S , Reddy, S . "Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: Pat 1: General considerations, the epidemiologic transition, risk factors, and impact of urbanization"
Circulation 104(22): 2746, 2003
13. Yusuf , S , Reddy, S . "Global burden of cardiovascular diseases: Part 11: Variations in cardiovascular diseases by specific ethnic groups and geographic regions and prevention strategies"
Circulation 104(23): 2746, 2003
14. Srinath, Reddy K. "Emerging epidemic of cardiovascular disease in developing countries"
Circulation 97, 596, 1998
15. Diabetes Division, Hongkong Society for Metabolism and Repro. "A Statement for health care professionals on type 2 diabetes mellitus in Hongkong"
HKMJ 6, 105, 2000
16. Ko, GTC . "Diagnosing diabetes mellitus in Asian population"
HKMJ 6, 53, 2000
17. Chan, JCN . "Heteroneneity of diabetes mellitus in the Hongkong population. The Chinese University of Hongkong Prince of Whales Hosital Diabetes Research and Care Group"
HKMJ 6, 77, 2000
18. Tan, C E, Tan, B Y, Emmanuel, S C, Jacob, E . "Prevalence of diabetes and ethnic differences in cardiovascular risk factors. The 1992 Singapore National Health Survey"
Diabetes Care 22(2): 241, 1999
19. Sy, R G, Dans, A , Punzalan, F E, Amarillo, M L, Velandria, F . "The prevalence of dyslipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, stroke and angina pectoris in the Philippines"
Philippine Journal Internal Medicine 41, 1, February 2003
20. Dans, A , Morales, D D, et al, . "National Nutrition and Health Survey (NNHeS): Atherosclerosis-related diseases and risk factors"
Philippine Journal Internal Medicine 43, 103, June 2005
21. Dans, A L, Abola, M T, Villarruz, MVC . "Prevalence of peripheral artery disease in the Philippines Pharse 2: A Survey on the prevalence of PAD using the EdinBurgh Claudication Quaestionnaire"
ASEAN Heart Journal 11(1): 24, June 2004
22. "DECODE Study Group on behalf of the European Diabetes Epidemiology Study Group. Will New Diagnostic criteria for diabetes mellitus change phenotype of patients with diabetes? Reanalysis of European Epidemiological data"
BMJ 317, 371, August 1998
23. "Impaired fasting glucose and impaired glucose tolerance"
Diabetes Care 30(3): March 2007
24. (). CDC: National Diabetes Fact Sheet, 2005. Available from. http//www.cdc.gov/diabetes/ppubs/factsheet05.htm. Accessed 1 April 2007.